Background: Kawasaki syndrome (KS) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in developed countries. This study was designed to identify the clinical characteristics of a large cohort of KS in China and explore the risk factors for coronary artery lesions.
Methods: Clinical records of 1370 patients with acute KS were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical features of different age groups were analyzed, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for coronary artery lesions caused by KS.
Results: The prevalence of redness at a Bacille Calmette-Guèrin inoculation site was greatest in infants younger than 6 months (18.4%), whereas cervical lymphadenopathy was more frequent in patients older than 60 months (61.5%). Age, sex, therapeutic time, intravenous immunoglobulin dose, platelet count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were risk factors for coronary artery lesions (P < 0.05). A total fever duration >10 days was a risk factor for coronary artery aneurysms in patients with coronary artery lesions (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: KS occurs more frequently in children younger than 5 years, in boys and during the summer months. Redness at a Bacille Calmette-Guèrin inoculation site signals the diagnosis of incomplete KS in infants and young children. Male gender, younger age, intravenous immunoglobulin dose, delayed administration (>10 days), high platelet level and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate are predictive for coronary artery lesions, and total fever duration (>10 days) is predictive for coronary artery aneurysms in patients with coronary artery lesions.