We analyzed blood and pleural fluid samples from 89 Taiwanese children with empyema thoracis and parapneumonic pleural effusion. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the major pathogen, identified in 12 children by bacterial culture and 53 children by molecular techniques, and serotype 19A was the dominant serotype. Also noteworthy was the detection of pneumococcal serotype 1, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in these children.
From the *Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan; †China Medical University School of Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung; ‡National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan; §Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; ¶Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Hospital, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; ‖GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rixensart, Belgium; **GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Tuas, Singapore (former affiliation); and ††National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
Accepted for publication January 4, 2013.
Javier Sawchik Monegal, PhD is currently at the Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products, Brussels, Belgium.
T-Y. L. and K.P.H. contributed equally to this work.
GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA (Rixensart, Belgium) was the funding source and was involved in all stages of the study conduct and analysis. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA also funded all costs associated with the development and the publishing of the present manuscript. All authors contributed to the study, were involved in writing and reviewing the paper and approved the final version. All authors had full access to the data and the corresponding author had final responsibility for submission of the manuscript. T-Y.L. has received institutional grants for the present work and payments for development of educational presentations from the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies; K.P.H. declares no conflict of interest; C-C.L. declares no conflict of interest; R.B.T. declares no conflict of interest; C.Y.L. has received funding from the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies for research on which the present article is based; G.L.G. has received grants from the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies for performance of laboratory tests for the present project as well as for a similar project in Australia; K.T. declares no conflict of interest; J.S.M. was an employee of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies; J-Y.P. is an employee of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies; M.K.V.D. is an employee of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies and declares stock ownership; Y.F.L. was an employee of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies and had stock ownership; L-M.H. has received institutional grants for the present work from the National Taiwan University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). He also received from the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies fees for participation in advisory board on a HPV vaccine project, for consultancy (clinical trial protocol) and for giving lectures on vaccines. He has received institutional grants from the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies for detection of organisms in Empyema; W.P.H. is an employee of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies and declares stock ownership. He is coholder of the patent for Prevnar 13 (Wyeth, New York, NY). The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Address for correspondence: Li-Min Huang, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan 100. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.