Background: The duration of protection after hepatitis B vaccination in early infancy is unclear and may be related to vaccination schedule, dosage, vaccine type and population characteristics. Factors potentially influencing waning immunity were assessed.
Methods: A systematic review was performed. The main outcomes were prevalence of anti-hepatits B antibodies ≥ 10 mIU/mL after primary or booster vaccination. Factors potentially influencing protection were assessed in an adjusted random-effects meta-analysis model by age for both outcomes. Results of both meta-analyses were combined in a prognostic model.
Results: Forty-six studies reporting on the anti-hepatits B antibodies ≥ 10 mIU/mL 5 to 20 years after primary immunization and 29 on booster response were identified. The adjusted meta-analyses identified maternal carrier status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [1.11; 5.08]), lower vaccine dosage than presently recommended (OR: 0.14 [0.06; 0.30]) and gap time between last and preceding dose of the primary vaccine series (OR: 0.44 [0.22; 0.86]) as determinants for persistence of anti-hepatits B antibodies ≥ 10. A lower vaccine dosage was also associated with failure to respond to booster (OR: 0.20 [0.10; 0.38]). The prognostic model predicted long-term protection of 90% [77%; 100%] at the age of 17 years for offspring of noncarrier mothers vaccinated with a presently recommended dose and vaccination schedule.
Conclusions: Based on meta-analyses, predictors of waning immunity after hepatitis B vaccination in infancy could be identified. A prognostic model for long-term protection after hepatitis B vaccination in infancy was developed.
From the *Institute of Social Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Epidemiology; †Department of Medical Informatics, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich; and ‡Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
Accepted for publication October 30, 2012.
The project was funded by Robert Koch-Institute grant 1362/1–925. The grant donating agency had no influence on the design or conduct of this study. Prof. Wolfgang Jilg has received honoraria for lectures from GlaxoSmithKline and SanofiPasteur-MSD and served as principal investigator in a clinical trial on hepatitis B vaccination sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline. The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
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Address for correspondence: Katharina Schönberger, MSc, MPH, Institute of Social Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Heiglhofstr. 63, 81377 München, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.