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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182784b26
Review Articles

The Burden of Childhood Pneumonia in the Developed World: A Review of the Literature

Madhi, Shabir A. MD, PhD*†; Wals, Philippe De MD; Grijalva, Carlos G. MD, MPH§; Grimwood, Keith MD; Grossman, Ronald MD; Ishiwada, Naruhiko MD**; Lee, Ping-Ing MD††; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana MD, PhD‡‡; Nohynek, Hanna MD, PhD§§; O’Brien, Katherine L. MD, MPH¶¶; Vergison, Anne MD, PhD‖‖; Wolter, Joanne MB BS, PhD***

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Abstract

Background: Estimates of the disease burden from childhood pneumonia are available for most developed countries, but they are based mainly on models. Measured country-specific pneumonia burden data are limited to a few nations and differ in case definitions and case ascertainment methods. This review describes pneumonia disease burden in developed countries.

Methods: We reviewed studies describing childhood pneumonia incidence in North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Available estimates suggest that each year in developed countries there are up to 2.6 million cases of pneumonia, including 1.5 million hospitalized cases and around 3000 pneumonia deaths (compared with approximately 640 annual deaths from meningitis) in children <5 years of age.

Results: Data to inform policy decisions would be improved by information on burden and etiology of severe pneumonia, population-based incidence of ambulatory visits and hospitalizations and prevalence of complications and sequelae.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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