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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31827687fc
Original Studies

Relationships Between Rhinitis Symptoms, Respiratory Viral Infections and Nasopharyngeal Colonization With Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in Children Attending Daycare

Rodrigues, Fernanda MD*; Foster, Dona PhD; Nicoli, Emily MEng; Trotter, Caroline PhD; Vipond, Barry PhD§; Muir, Peter PhD§; Gonçalves, Guilherme MD, PhD; Januário, Luís MD; Finn, Adam MD, PhD**

Erratum

Erratum

In the article on page 227, volume 32, issue 3 of The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal the author corrections were not applied as requested. The corrected text is indicated in bold below.

On page 227, the final affiliation should read: **Bristol Children’s Vaccine Centre, Schools of Clinical Sciences and Cel¬lular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

On page 227, the revised Results and Conclusions of the Abstract should read:

Results: Rhinitis symptoms, carriage of Sp and Hi and viral detection fell, whereas S. aureus carriage rates rose with age. Significant, age-independent associations between rhinitis symptoms and detection of Hi (P < 0.033) and Hi colonization density (P < 0.027) were observed. Of the 42% with detected viruses, most (78%) had picornavirus detection. There was a significant age-independent association between viral detection (and viral load, picornavirus detection and picornaviral load) and detection of Sp (P = 0.020, 0.035, 0.005, 0.014) and between viral detection and viral load and Sp colonization density (P = 0.024, 0.028).

Conclusions: Hi may promote its own transmission by inducing or ampli¬fying rhinitis in children. There is a close quantitative relationship between respiratory viral detection, including picornavirus detection and Sp coloni¬zation. These findings have implications for understanding disease patho¬genesis and formulating prevention strategies using vaccines.

On page 227, third paragraph, right column, the final word in the first sentence is missing a hyphen, it should read: eff-ects.

On page 228, Results, Clinical Data, first sentence should read: “…parents were given a questionnaire on their child’s age, sex, use of antibiotics…”

On page 228, the following company locations should have been included in the text: Medical Wire & Equipment, Corsham, Wiltshire, UK; E&O Laboratories Ltd, Burnhouse, Bonnybridge, UK; BD BBL Sensi-Disc, Oxford, UK; Oxoid, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK.

On page 228, Results, Characteristics of the study group, “DCC” should be expanded to read: daycare center.

On page 229, Figure 2 should appear as below. Note the alignment of the table columns and the graph.

On page 230, the final sentence in the legend for Figure 3 should read: Absolute numbers are shown in the table.

On page 230, the first complete sentence in the right column, should read: “Although, by χ2, there was a significant association between Sp and Hi (positive) and Sa (negative) colonization and respiratory viral detection (P < 0.001, P = 0.037, P < 0.001, respectively)…”

On page 231, Acknowledgments, second sentence should read: We thank Malcolm Guiver, Health Protection Agency Manchester, for providing sequences of RSV and parainfluenzavirus primers and probes, and Ruby Ahmed and Jonathan Hubb, Health Protection Agency, for PCR testing.

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 32(6):707, June 2013.

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Abstract

Background: Nasal bacterial colonization is often dubbed “asymptomatic.” We hypothesized that rhinitis, common in preschool children, is associated with bacterial colonization and that respiratory viruses, which cause rhinitis, interact with bacteria in ways which promote transmission.

Methods: Five hundred eighty-five children (4.2–73.6 months) attending daycare had clinical information, a rhinitis score and nasal swabs collected in February 2009. Swabs in soya tryptone glucose glycerine broth were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Staphylococcus aureus and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for respiratory viruses, both semiquantitatively.

Results: Rhinitis symptoms, carriage of Sp and Hi and viral infection fell, whereas S. aureus carriage rates rose with age. Significant, age-independent associations between rhinitis symptoms and detection of Hi (P < 0.033) and Hi colonization density (P < 0.027) were observed. Of the 42% with detected viruses, most (78%) had picornavirus infection. There was a significant age-independent association between viral infection (and viral load, picornavirus infection and picornaviral load) and detection of Sp (P = 0.020, 0.035, 0.005, 0.014) and between viral infection and viral load and Sp colonization density (P = 0.024, 0.028).

Conclusions: Hi may promote its own transmission by inducing or amplifying rhinitis in children. There is a close quantitative relationship between respiratory viral infection, including picornavirus infection and Sp colonization. These findings have implications for understanding disease pathogenesis and formulating prevention strategies using vaccines.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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