Background: There are pediatric patients receiving many highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens entailing drug resistance mutations that complicate HAART effective therapies.
Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective study of 19 multidrug-resistant children and adolescents enrolled from July 2007 to October 2009. Patients were nonresponders because no reduction in HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA to undetectable levels was observed during their previous antiretroviral treatment history. The long-term effectiveness of raltegravir (RAL)-based salvage therapy was assessed through a longitudinal analysis of immunologic, virologic, and clinical status of the patients.
Results: Median age was 16.0 (15.0–18.0) years. At baseline, median HIV-1 RNA was 10,000 (4.0 log10 copies/mL) (interquartile range [IQR]: 4300–83,000), and median CD4+T-cell count was 329 (18.2% cells/μL) (IQR: 175–452). The backbone regimen included at least 1 fully active drug in 17/19 (89%) patients. Median follow-up with HAART including RAL was 80.1 weeks (IQR: 49.4–96.4): 16/19 (84%) exposed for >120 weeks and 6/19 (32%) >100 weeks. After RAL-based therapy, 4/19 (21%) patients achieved HIV-1 RNA <400 copies and 13/17 (68%) reached HIV-1 RNA <50 copies: 6 (32%) within the first month and 7 (37%) within the first 4 months. CD4+T-cell recovery (70% to 90% of the baseline values) was observed in 17/19 (89%) patients. No deaths, AIDS-defining illnesses, or symptoms of severe intolerance were recorded. Only 2 patients experienced mild-moderate short-term skin rash. Two (11%) patients had sustained and optimum adherence to HAART. No patients showed resistance mutations to RAL after follow-up.
Conclusions: We observed a sustained antiviral response and improved immunologic indices in multidrug-resistant pediatric patients, most of whom had received RAL as part of salvage regimens with at least 1 fully active drugs.