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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182218656
Original Studies

Reduction in the Incidence of Influenza A But Not Influenza B Associated With Use of Hand Sanitizer and Cough Hygiene in Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Stebbins, Samuel MD, MPH*; Cummings, Derek A. T. PhD†; Stark, James H. MPH*; Vukotich, Chuck MS*; Mitruka, Kiren MD, MPH‡; Thompson, William PhD§; Rinaldo, Charles PhD¶; Roth, Loren MD∥; Wagner, Michael PhD§; Wisniewski, Stephen R. PhD*; Dato, Virginia MD, MPH¶; Eng, Heather MS*; Burke, Donald S. MD*

Supplemental Author Material
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Abstract

Background: Laboratory-based evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer and respiratory hygiene to reduce the spread of influenza.

Methods: The Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project was a cluster-randomized trial conducted in 10 elementary schools in Pittsburgh, PA, during the 2007 to 2008 influenza season. Children in 5 intervention schools received training in hand and respiratory hygiene, and were provided and encouraged to use hand sanitizer regularly. Children in 5 schools acted as controls. Children with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza A and B by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.

Results: A total of 3360 children participated in this study. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, 54 cases of influenza A and 50 cases of influenza B were detected. We found no significant effect of the intervention on the primary study outcome of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54, 1.23). However, we did find statistically significant differences in protocol-specified ancillary outcomes. Children in intervention schools had significantly fewer laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections than children in control schools, with an adjusted IRR of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.87). Total absent episodes were also significantly lower among the intervention group than among the control group; adjusted IRR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97).

Conclusions: NPIs (respiratory hygiene education and the regular use of hand sanitizer) did not reduce total laboratory-confirmed influenza. However, the interventions did reduce school total absence episodes by 26% and laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections by 52%. Our results suggest that NPIs can be an important adjunct to influenza vaccination programs to reduce the number of influenza A infections among children.

© 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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