Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with encephalitis is a life-threatening condition that requires treatment with immunochemotherapy; refractory patients are eligible for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report on an adolescent female who failed to respond to induction immunochemotherapy and was salvaged by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical, Epstein-Barr virus-seropositive brother leading to rapid clearance of Epstein-Barr virus from blood and cerebrospinal fluid.
From the *Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, and †Division of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Accepted for publication December 29, 2009.
Address for correspondence: Petra Sovinz, MD, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 30, 8036 Graz, Austria. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.