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Hospitalizations for Kawasaki Syndrome Among Children in the United States, 19972007

Holman, Robert C. MS*; Belay, Ermias D. MD*; Christensen, Krista Y. MPH*; Folkema, Arianne M. MPH*; Steiner, Claudia A. MD, MPH†; Schonberger, Lawrence B. MD, MPH*

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: June 2010 - Volume 29 - Issue 6 - pp 483-488
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181cf8705
Original Studies

Background: The present study describes the rate and trends of childhood hospitalizations with Kawasaki syndrome (KS) in the United States.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with KS among children <18 years of age in the United States using the Kids' Inpatient Database (1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006) and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998–2007).

Results: The KS-associated hospitalization rate for children <5 years of age was 20.8 (95% CI: 18.5–23.1) per 100,000 children in 2006. Annual rates remained constant during the study period, except for a peak in 2005. In 2006, 76.8% (SE = 0.9%) of an estimated 5523 (SE = 289) KS-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years of age were <5 years of age. The mean age for all children at hospitalization was 3.0 years (SE <0.1); 25.7 months (SE = 0.3) for children <5 years of age, and 24.8 months (SE = 0.4) and 27.1 months (SE = 0.5) for boys and girls, respectively. The rate for boys was higher than that for girls (24.2 [95% CI: 21.3–27.1] and 16.8 [95% CI: 14.7–18.9], respectively). The rate for Asian/Pacific Islander children (30.3 [95% CI: 20.2–40.4]) was the highest among the racial groups.

Conclusions: The national KS-associated annual hospitalization rate for children <5 years of age from 1997 to 2007 was relatively stable and was similar to previously published rates, except for an increase in 2005. Most hospitalizations were in children <3 years of age with few hospitalizations during the first 2 months of age. Children of Asian/Pacific Islander descent had the highest hospitalization rate.

From the *Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA; and †Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Center for Delivery, Organization and Markets, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD.

Accepted for publication December 14, 2009.

The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Address for correspondence: Robert C. Holman, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS A-39, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: RHolman@cdc.gov.

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© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.