Background: Quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (MCV4) is routinely recommended for healthy youth in the United States, but there are no data about its use in HIV-infected people.
Methods: P1065 is a Phase I/II trial of MCV4 safety and immunogenicity in HIV-infected children and youth performed at 27 US sites of the IMPAACT network. All youth (11–24 years old) received 1 dose of open-label MCV4 at entry. Standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate safety. Baseline protective immunity was defined as rabbit serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titer ≥1:128. Immunogenic response was defined as a ≥4-fold rise in rSBA against each meningococcal serogroup. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of demographic and clinical characteristics on immunogenic response to serogroup C.
Results: Among 319 subjects who received MCV4, 10 (3.1%) reported immediate adverse events which were local and mild, and 7 (2.2%) experienced Grade ≥3 adverse events, unrelated to vaccine. The 305 subjects with serologic data had a median age of 17 years and were 59% male, 50% Black, and 38% Latino. Subjects were stratified by entry CD4%: 12%, CD4 <15%; 40%, 15% to 24%; and 48%, ≥25%. Baseline protective immunity varied by serogroup: A, 41%; C, 11%; W-135, 15%; Y, 35% The immunogenic response rates to serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y were 68%, 52%, 73%, and 63%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression models, lower entry CD4%, higher entry viral load, and CDC Class B/C diagnosis were associated with significantly lower odds of response to serogroup C.
Conclusion: Many HIV-infected youth naturally acquire meningococcal immunity. MCV4 is safe and immunogenic in HIV-infected youth, but response rates are lower than in healthy youth, particularly for those with more advanced HIV clinical, immunologic, and virologic status.