There are limited data on transmitted antiretroviral resistance in young children who require antiretroviral therapy. We adapted the World Health Organization surveillance strategy, testing antiretroviral naive infants (<18 months) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and detecting only 3 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and no NRTI or protease inhibitor surveillance mutations in 49 patients. The estimated NRTI and protease inhibitor transmitted antiretroviral resistance prevalence is low (<5%), predicting good therapeutic response in Western Cape infants.
From the *Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; and †Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Children's Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa.
Accepted for publication October 7, 2009.
Supported by the South African Department of Health, CCMT program.
Address for correspondence: Gert U. van Zyl, MD, Division of Medical Virology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Campus, P.O. Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.