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Infant and Maternal Risk Factors for Pertussis-Related Infant Mortality in the United States, 1999 to 2004

Haberling, Dana L. MSPH*; Holman, Robert C. MS*; Paddock, Christopher D. MD*; Murphy, Trudy V. MD†

Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal:
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31818c9032
Original Studies
Abstract

Background: Infants aged <12 months have the highest rates of complications and death from pertussis of any age group. Factors that increase the risk of pertussis-related death in infants are not well defined.

Methods: The US Multiple Cause-of-Death and Linked Birth/Infant Death databases were used for 1999 to 2004 to examine pertussis-related infant mortality rates and to obtain anonymous records of infants with pertussis listed as a cause of death and of surviving infants. Infant and maternal characteristics present at the time of birth for infants who died with pertussis were compared with those of surviving infants.

Results: During 1999 to 2004, 91 infant deaths were reported with pertussis as a cause of death. All infants were 7 months or younger; 58% were age <2 months. The average annual infant mortality rate attributed to pertussis was 3.8 (95% CI: 3.0–4.6) per 1,000,000 live births, and 13.1 (95% CI: 9.8–17.1) per 1,000,000 live births for infants aged <2 months. Infant pertussis deaths showed an independent association with birth weight <2500 g, female sex, Apgar score <8, and mother with <12 years education. The mortality rate among Hispanic infants aged <2 months was 2.6 times greater than among non-Hispanic infants of similar age.

Conclusions: Ensuring pertussis booster vaccination of adults and adolescents in close contact with an infant is warranted to prevent transmission of pertussis to vulnerable infants, particularly infants too young to be immunized. Special emphasis should be given to women and infant settings in which the risk of infant pertussis death might be increased.

Author Information

From the *Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, and the †Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA.

Accepted for publication September 3, 2008.

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funding agency.

Address for correspondence: Dana L. Haberling, MSPH, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS A-39, Atlanta, GA 30333.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.