We describe the case of a 4-month-old infant presenting with severe respiratory distress secondary to necrotizing epiglottitis, who was subsequently diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Additionally, we review the existing literature on this rare condition with a focus on the potential underlying pathogenesis.
From the *Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of General Medicine, Royal Childeren's Hospital Melbourne; †Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne; ‡Murdoch Childrens Research Institute; and Departments of §Otorhinolaryngology and ¶General Medicine, Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
Accepted for publication July 22, 2008.
Supported by a fellowship award by the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) and an International Research Scholarship provided by The University of Melbourne (to M.T.); and by fellowship awards from Faculty of Medical and Dental Health Sciences and the Nossal Institute of Global Health, The University of Melbourne (to T.C.).
Address for correspondence: Nigel Curtis, FRCPCH, PhD, Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Flemington Rd, 3052 Parkville, Victoria, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.