An adolescent with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia suffered from 4 visceral leishmaniasis relapses despite appropriate treatment. CD8 lymphocytopenia and abnormal expansion of TCRαβ+, CD4−, CD8− cells were consistently detected together with reduced export of mature T cells from thymus. This novel form of idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia may predispose to multiple visceral leishmaniasis relapses.
From the *Laboratory of Oncology and †Unit of Infectious Diseases, G.Gaslini Scientific Institute, Genova Italy; ‡Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Terzo Servizio Analisi, Spedali Civili of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; §Laboratory of Pathology, G.Gaslini Scientific Institute, Genova, Italy; ¶Unit of Vector-borne Diseases and International Health, MIPI Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; ∥Department of Medical Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy; **Department of Pediatrics, University of Turin, Torino, Italy; ††Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, G.Gaslini Scientific Institute, Genova, Italy; ‡‡Department of Experimental Medicine and Centro di Eccellenza per le Ricerche Biomediche, University of Genoa, Genova, Italy; §§Laboratory of Experimental and Clinical Immunology, G.Gaslini Institute and Centro di Eccellenza per le Ricerche Biomediche, University of Genoa, Genova; ¶¶Department of Pediatrics, “Angelo Nocivelli” Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; and ∥∥Unité d'Immunologie et Hématologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France.
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Accepted for publication July 1, 2008.
Supported by grants from Ministero della Salute, Progetti di Ricerca Corrente 2006.
Ignazia Prigione, PhD, and Elio Castagnola, MD, are shared first authors.
Address for correspondence: Ignazia Prigione, PhD, Laboratory of Oncology, G.Gaslini Institute, Largo G.Gaslini 5, 16148 Genova, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.