Objectives: To assess the 48-week efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and resistance of double boosted protease inhibitors (PI), saquinavir (SQV), and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), in children who have failed nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors /non-nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors-based regimens.
Methods: Fifty children at 2 sites in Thailand were treated with standard dosing of SQV and LPV/r. CD4, HIV-RNA viral load (VL), plasma drug concentrations and safety laboratory evaluations were monitored. Virologic failure was defined as having 2 consecutive VL >400 copies/mL after week 12 of therapy. Intention to treat analysis was performed.
Results: Baseline data were a median age of 9.3 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 7.1–11.2), Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification N:A:B:C 4%:14%:68%:14%, VL 4.8 log10 (IQR: 4.5–5.1), CD4 7% (IQR: 3–9.5). At 48 weeks, 3 had died of bacterial infection but no cases had progressed CDC classification. Median CD4% rise was 9 (IQR: 5–16) and median HIV RNA reduction was −2.8 log10 (IQR: −3.2 to −1.4), both P < 0.001. Thirty-nine (78%) and 32 (64%) children had VL <400 and <50 with significant differences between the 2 sites. Five children (10%) had VL failure as a result of poor adherence to the drug regimen but no one had major PI mutations. Median serum cholesterol and triglyceride increased significantly (+35 mg/dL, +37 mg/dL, respectively, both P < 0.001). Mean minimum plasma concentrations (Cmin) of LPV and SQV were 4.6 and 1.24 mg/L, respectively.
Conclusions: Double boosted SQV/LPV/r resulted in significant CD4 rise and VL decline at 48 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was common. Cmin of both PIs exceeded therapeutic concentrations. Poor adherence caused failure in 10%. No major PI mutations were found.