During 2003–2004, locally presenting pleural empyema cases in children increased 3-fold. Antigen analysis of empyema fluid identified Streptococcus pneumoniae in 27 of 29 cases for whom samples were available and capsular polysaccharide type 1 in 18 of these. Use of a conjugate vaccine without serotype 1 antigen would have had limited impact on this morbidity in our region.
From the *Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of the West of England, Bristol, U.K.; the †Health Protection Agency South West Region Laboratory, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, U.K.; and the ‡Institute of Child Life and Health, CSSB, University of Bristol, Bristol, U.K.
Accepted for publication February 20, 2006.
The Health Protection Agency, South West England, provided financial support for this study. JL has previously received funding for undertaking similar analyses for Wyeth and thanks them for provision of reagent material.
Address for correspondence: Margaret Fletcher, PhD, Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Child Life and Health, Department of Clinical Sciences at South Bristol, University of Bristol, UBHT Education Centre, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE, U.K.; E-mail: Margaret.Fletcher@uwe.ac.uk.