Background: Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for more than 500,000 physician visits, 50,000 hospitalizations and 20 deaths in the United States each year.
Objective: To compare the safety and immunogenicity of 2 dosages of a live attenuated oral monovalent G1 human rotavirus (HRV) vaccine in healthy infants.
Design/Methods: In this randomized, double blind trial conducted in the United States and Canada, 529 healthy infants 5–15 weeks of age received HRV vaccine containing either 105.2 or 106.4 focus-forming units or placebo. Two doses were administered orally at a 2-month interval concomitantly with routine childhood vaccines. Symptoms of fever, irritability/fussiness, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite and cough/runny nose were solicited for 15 days postvaccination, nonserious adverse events for 43 days postvaccination and serious adverse events throughout the study. Vaccine take was defined as appearance of serum antirotavirus IgA in postimmunization sera at a titer of ≥20 units/mL or vaccine virus shedding in any stool sample collected between the first dose and 2 months after the second dose.
Results: No serious adverse events considered related to vaccine were reported. The incidence of solicited symptoms was similar among treatment groups during the 15-day postvaccination surveillance periods. No significant difference in vaccine take after 2 doses (88.0% in high dose group and 81.5% in low dose group) was seen between vaccine groups (P = 0.153).
Conclusions: Two doses of either dosage level of HRV vaccine administered concurrently with routine childhood vaccines to healthy infants 5–15 weeks of age were well-tolerated and were highly immunogenic.