Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the effects of music on the amount of time that infants and toddlers cried during physical therapy sessions.
Methods: An A-B-A withdrawal multiple single-subject design was used with 9 infants and toddlers with or at risk for developmental disabilities. Music was played during therapy in the intervention period but not in the baseline periods. The number of minutes that the participants cried was documented in a Crying Log. Results were analyzed using a celeration line approach and descriptive statistics.
Results: Responses to music varied among the participants, with 6 of 9 children crying less when music was used during therapy.
Conclusions: Infants and toddlers with or at risk for developmental disabilities may benefit from the use of music during physical therapy to reduce crying. Effects of music on other aspects of infant and toddler behavior need to be studied.