Background: This study was performed to estimate the rate of angular correction after asymmetrical physeal suppression and analyze the factors that influence the rate of correction by using a linear mixed model application.
Methods: A total of 175 physes (72 distal femoral, 70 proximal tibial, and 33 distal tibial) from 78 consecutive patients with valgus angular deformity of the lower limb who underwent asymmetrical physeal suppression were included. The anatomic lateral distal femoral angle, the anatomic lateral proximal tibial angle, and the anatomic lateral distal tibial angle were measured from the teleroentgenograms of the patients’ preoperative visit and periodic follow-ups. The rate of angular correction was adjusted by multiple factors by using a linear mixed model with age, sex, and surgical method as the fixed effects and each subject as the random effect. The final model included the age-specific and surgical method–specific rate and sex-specific and surgical method–specific intercept. Multivariate analysis was performed for this model.
Results: In younger children (boys 14 y or younger and girls 12 y or younger), the rate of correction of valgus deformity at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal tibia was 0.71 degrees/month (8.5 degrees/y), 0.40 degrees/month (4.8 degrees/y), and 0.48 degrees/month (5.8 degrees/y), respectively. In older children, the rate of correction of valgus deformity at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal tibia was 0.39 degrees/month (4.7 degrees/y), 0.29 degrees/month (3.5 degrees/y), and 0.48 degrees/month (5.8 degrees/y), respectively. The rate of correction at the distal femur was significantly lower in older children (P=0.025). The rate of angular correction at the proximal tibia was significantly faster in the screw group than in the staple group (P=0.046).
Conclusions: Asymmetrical physeal suppression with staples, percutaneous transphyseal screws, and permanent method all are effective methods for treating valgus deformity in growing children. When we treat valgus deformity in growing children, we should take into consideration the fact that the rate of correction at the distal femur is lower in older children, and that at the proximal tibia is faster in the screw group.
Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level III.
*Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
†Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Kyungki
‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, Seoul, Korea
K.H.S. and S.A. are the co-first authors.
None of the authors received financial support for this study.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Reprints: Moon Seok Park, MD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Sungnam, Kyungki 463-707, Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.