Humerus Shaft Fractures in Young Children: Accident or Abuse?Shaw, Brian A. M.D.; Murphy, Kelleen M. B.S.; Shaw, Anthony M.D.; Oppenheim, William L. M.D.; Myracle, Michael R. M.D.*Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics: May/June 1997 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 - pp 293-297 Trauma Abstract Author Information Summary: We performed a retrospective review of 34 humerus shaft fractures (HSFs) in children younger than 3 years to determine the frequency of child abuse in young children with this injury. Data were obtained from hospital records (including previous and subsequent emergency, clinic, and inpatient notes), radiographs, and county child-protective services. Cases were reviewed independently by four physicians and were classified as probable abuse, probable not abuse, and indeterminate. Only 18% were classified as probable abuse. The history and findings other than the fracture itself were critical in establishing cause. Neither age nor fracture pattern is pathognomonic of abuse, but suspicion should remain high. A detailed history, complete physical examination, and appropriate radiographic investigation are required in every case either to make the diagnosis of abuse or to avoid the trauma of a false accusation. From the Departments of Orthopaedics and *Radiology, Valley Children's Hospital, Fresno, California, U.S.A. Study conducted at Valley Children's Hospital, Fresno, California, U.S.A. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. B. A. Shaw at Valley Children's Hospital, 3151 N. Millbrook Ave., Fresno, CA 93703, U.S.A. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.