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Pediatric Critical Care Medicine:
doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e31823f681d
Articles

Chapter 17. Antiseizure prophylaxis

Kochanek, Patrick M. MD, FCCM; Carney, Nancy PhD; Adelson, P. David MD, FACS, FAAP; Ashwal, Stephen MD; Bell, Michael J. MD; Bratton, Susan MD, MPH, FAAP; Carson, Susan MPH; Chesnut, Randall M. MD, FCCM, FACS; Ghajar, Jamshid MD, PhD, FACS; Goldstein, Brahm MD, FAAP, FCCM; Grant, Gerald A. MD; Kissoon, Niranjan MD, FAAP, FCCM; Peterson, Kimberly BSc; Selden, Nathan R. MD, PhD, FACS, FAAP; Tong, Karen A. MD; Tasker, Robert C. MBBS, MD, FRCP; Vavilala, Monica S. MD; Wainwright, Mark S. MD, PhD; Warden, Craig R. MD, MPH, FAAP, FACEP

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Author Information

From Critical Care Medicine (PMK, MJB), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology (NC, SC, KP), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital (PDA), and Pediatric Neurosurgery/ Children' Neurosciences (PDA), Phoenix, AZ; Division of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics (SA) and Section of Neuroradiology (KAT), Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA; Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (SB), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT; Department of Neurological Surgery (NRS), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Orthopedics and Sports Medicine (RMC), University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; Neurological Surgery (JG), Weill Cornell Medical College; President of the Brain Trauma Foundation (JG), New York, NY; Translational Science (BG), Ikaria, Inc., Clinton, NJ; Pediatrics (BG), University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ; Surgery and Pediatrics (GAG), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine (NK), British Columbia's Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Neurocritical Care (RCT), Children's Hospital Boston; Neurology and Anesthesia (RCT), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Anesthesiology and Pediatrics (MSV), University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA; Molecular Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry (MSW), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL; Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics (CRW), and Pediatric Emergency Services (CRW), Oregon Health & Science University/Doernbercher Children's Hospital, Portland, OR.

Funding provided by the Brain Trauma Foundation and partial funding from the Charles Maddock Foundation.

The authors have not disclosed any potential conflicts of interest.

For information regarding this article, E-mail: carneyn@ohsu.edu

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I. RECOMMENDATIONS

Strength of Recommendation: Weak.

Quality of Evidence: Low, from one poor-quality class III study.

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A. Level I

There are insufficient data to support a level I recommendation for this topic.

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B. Level II

There are insufficient data to support a level II recommendation for this topic.

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C. Level III

Prophylactic treatment with phenytoin may be considered to reduce the incidence of early posttraumatic seizures (PTS) in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

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II. EVIDENCE TABLE (see Table 1)

Table 1
Table 1
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III. OVERVIEW

Posttraumatic seizures are defined as occurring early, within 7 days of injury, or late, beyond 8 days of recovery (1). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of PTS include location of the lesion, cerebral contusions, retained bone and metal fragments, depressed skull fracture, focal neurologic deficits, loss of consciousness, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <10, severity of injury, length of posttraumatic amnesia, subdural or epidural hematoma, penetrating injury, chronic alcoholism, and age. Infants and children have lower seizure thresholds (2), adding to the challenge of recognition of subtle clinical seizures (3) in critically ill children.

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IV. PROCESS

For this update, MEDLINE was searched from 1996 through 2010 (Appendix B for search strategy), and results were supplemented with literature recommended by peers or identified from reference lists. Of 15 potentially relevant new studies, no new studies were used as evidence for this topic.

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V. SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATION

One class III study met the inclusion criteria for this topic and provides evidence to support the recommendation. Data from a single center retrospective cohort study of children ages 3 months to 15 yrs identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code were reported by Lewis et al (4). This study reported a significant reduction in early PTS rate in the severe TBI cases treated with prophylactic phenytoin compared with patients with severe TBI who were not treated prophylactically (15% vs. 53%, p = .04, one-tailed Fisher's exact test). Limitations of this study include the small size of the severe TBI group, the decision to treat based on individual physician preference, and the absence of data on long-term outcome, phenytoin levels, or complications of anticonvulsant therapy.

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VI. INFORMATION FROM OTHER SOURCES

A. Indications From the Adult Guidelines

Based on data from five studies, the adult guidelines for the prevention of PTS provide a level II recommendation for the use of anticonvulsants to decrease the incidence of early PTS (3). Among these studies, three compared phenytoin with placebo, one compared phenobarbital with placebo, and one compared phenytoin with valproate. The use of either phenytoin or valproic acid as prophylaxis to reduce the incidence of late PTS is not recommended. Similar recommendations have been published elsewhere (5). There are no data to show that early PTS are associated with worse outcomes.

A prospective study by Temkin et al (6) was performed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the effect of treatment with phenytoin on early and late PTS in 404 patients. Importantly, dosages were adjusted to maintain therapeutic levels. In the treated group, the incidence of early PTS was 3.6%, a significant reduction (p < .001) compared with placebo (14.2%) (risk ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12–0.62). Treatment with phenytoin had no effect on either late PTS or survival compared with placebo.

A randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of valproic acid on the incidence of PTS compared phenytoin with valproic acid (7). One hundred thirty-two patients were randomized to 1-wk treatment with phenytoin, 120 to 1 month of valproic acid, and 126 to 6 months of valproic acid. The rates of early PTS did not differ between treatment groups (1.5% for the phenytoin group and 4.5% for both arms of the valproic acid group) and there were also no differences in the rate of late PTS. There was a trend toward higher mortality rate in patients treated with valproic acid compared with phenytoin (13.4% vs. 7.2%, p = .07; risk ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.9–4.1).

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B. Information Not Included as Evidence

To address the question about whether prophylactic treatment reduces seizures, various questions/issues need to be considered. For example: 1) What is the incidence of PTS? 2) What is the right anticonvulsant medication? 3) What is the appropriate dose? 4) What is the risk–benefit of the drug in the context of other morbidities after TBI? 5) Can and should the drug therapy be targeted to a high-risk group?

The following studies provide information about these questions but do not constitute evidence. It is important to keep in mind that the various studies have different case definitions when discussing PTS: 0–24 hrs, 0–48 hrs, 0–7 days, or 0–2 yrs.

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Frequency of posttraumatic seizures in pediatric TBI.

A number of studies that report the inclusion of pediatric cases have examined the frequency of early and late PTS after severe TBI.

In a four-center study, subjects >6 yrs admitted between 1993 and 1998 with computed tomography evidence of TBI or a GCS less ≤10 24 hrs postinjury with negative computed tomography were studied to determine the natural history of later PTS in moderate and severe TBI (8). The subjects were followed for 2 yrs or until the first seizure >8 days after TBI, death, or treatment with an anticonvulsant. Among the 647 subjects, 43% were <30 yrs. Sixty-six (10%) of subjects had a late PTS, although 26% of the total were lost to follow-up. The probability of developing late PTS at 2 yrs after TBI was 13.8% (66 of 480). The majority (79%) of these seizures were generalized. The length of initial anticonvulsant prophylaxis correlated with a greater frequency of late PTS. The relative risk of seizures at 2 yrs after treatment with phenytoin on days 1–7 was 1.56 compared with 4.27 in the subjects treated up to 30 days after injury. It is possible this difference reflects differences in the severity of injury between these groups.

The incidence of late PTS was examined in two populations in Italy, a retrospective study of 55 cases and a prospective study of 82 subject all with severe TBI (9). In the retrospective group (age range, 14–62 yrs), ten patients (18%) had PTS of whom half had been treated with an anticonvulsant (phenobarbital) and half had not. In the prospective part of the study, 84% of the subjects were treated with prophylactic anticonvulsants during 2-yr follow-up and 39% experienced PTS. There were no PTS in the subjects who were not treated with an anticonvulsant. This counterintuitive finding may again reflect the clinical assessment of the need for treatment in the more severely impaired subjects.

A retrospective study from two hospitals in Turkey examined the risk factors for PTS in children <16 yrs (10). There were 149 cases of PTS (8.4%) in the 1785 patients in this series. Young age (<3 yrs), severity of injury, cerebral edema, depressed skull fracture, and hemorrhage were more common in the cases with PTS. A retrospective review of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage confirmed by computed tomography scan at three centers in Israel identified 52 cases (mean age, 50 yrs; range, 8–85 yrs) with recurrent seizures (11). Only five cases were <19 yrs, all of whom were reported as mentally handicapped. The patients with seizures or epilepsy were identified only by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code and the majority of cases (44) were male. This study did not define risk factors for seizures after traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, but rather provided a description of the characteristics of patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage leading to recurrent seizures.

A study of 102 children aged 1.3–15.2 yrs with severe TBI, of which 85% required mechanical ventilation, all of whom received inpatient rehabilitation therapy between 1991 and 1998, examined the prevalence of posttraumatic epilepsy (12). Follow-up in this study ranged from 19 months to 7 yrs, during which nine subjects (9%) developed posttraumatic epilepsy. The interval from insult to first seizure onset ranged from 0.7 to 5.2 yrs (median, 2.9 yrs). The presence of early (within the first week post-TBI) seizures (p = .002) and GCS score (p = .043) were the only factors at the time of injury related to the development of posttraumatic epilepsy. A series of 318 children ages 1 month to 17 yrs treated between 1965 and 1991–with an average follow-up of 8 yrs, 9 months–reported early seizures in 19.8% and an incidence of late seizures of 29.6% after open head injury compared with 20.2% after closed head injury (13).

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Effects of treatment with anticonvulsants.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of phenytoin in preventing late PTS in 41 patients, Young et al (14) found no difference in rate of PTS in the treated group (12%) compared with control subjects (6.2%). All seizures occurred within the first year after injury. Compliance was poor, and by 6 months, serum levels of phenytoin were available on only 15 (60%) of the treatment group. Among this group, six subjects (40%) had a measured serum drug level of ≤10 μg/mL. Notably, no patients with a serum level >10 μg/mL had a seizure. The study is limited by the small size, poor compliance, unclear criteria for randomization, and lack of clarity over association between GCS and outcome. Sixteen (39%) of the subjects had a GCS of ≤7. Because the analysis combined severe and moderate patients, it did not meet criteria for inclusion as evidence for this topic.

In a prospective cohort study of children admitted to the pediatric intensive care units at three centers, Tilford et al (15) identified 138 cases of severe TBI among the 477 children admitted with a diagnosis of head trauma. There was a significant variation in anticonvulsant use (range, 10% to 35%) among the three centers with an overall incidence of early PTS of 9.4%. The type of anticonvulsant used was not specified. The indications for such use, either prophylaxis or in response to a clinical or electrographic seizure, were also not specified. In a stepwise logistic regression model (accounting for GCS, the participating site, other therapies), the use of an anticonvulsant medication was associated with a significant reduction in risk of mortality (p = .014; odds ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04–0.70), but the analysis was not limited to patients in the severe TBI group.

A study by Young et al (16) reported no reduction in the rate of PTS within 48 hrs of injury in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of phenytoin in children with moderate to severe blunt head injury. Children <16 yrs with a GCS of ≤9 (<4 yrs) or ≤10 (>4 yrs) were enrolled by deferred consent within 40 mins of presentation to the emergency department and drug or placebo administered within 60 mins of presentation. Phenytoin dose was 18 mg/kg followed by 2 mg/kg every 8 hrs for the 48 hrs of the study. Subjects were stratified by age and GCS. One hundred three subjects were randomized with 33% lost at 48-hr follow-up and 36% lost at 30-day follow-up. In the phenytoin-treated group, three patients (7%) had a seizure during the 48-hr observation period compared with three (5%) in the placebo group. Six patients (one phenytoin, five placebo) had an electroencephalogram performed. None showed nonconvulsive seizures. Over 30 days recovery, there was no difference in mortality in the treatment group (20% [six of 30]) compared with placebo (39% [14 of 36]). The major limitations of this study are the low seizure rate and the small sample size resulting from early loss of subjects and decrease in enrollment after ceasing to waive consent.

A study of 318 cases of severe TBI from a single center in Germany with mean follow-up of 8 yrs, 9 months identified 68 cases (21%) of late seizures with a mean latency of 2 yrs, 5 months (17). Approximately half of these cases were resistant to anticonvulsant therapy, although the details of therapy are not given. The children with PTS had a worse outcome in this series with 60% having disabilities compared with 17% in the other patients.

In a single-center, prospective study during the war in Bosnia, 310 patients between 0 and 18 yrs with severe TBI were treated with either intravenous phenytoin or phenobarbital, depending on the availability of each drug (18). The primary outcome was the frequency of seizure in the first 24 hrs after admission. This was low, occurring only in two cases (0.64%). Although the criteria for classification of cases as severe are not specified, skull fracture was present in 85% of cases. The frequency of seizures is low and there is no detail on the process for monitoring for seizures, suggesting this may be an underestimate.

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Pharmacokinetic considerations.

TBI results in an increase in hepatic metabolism and decrease in protein binding of drugs including anticonvulsants (19), resulting in an increase in plasma clearance. The free fraction of phenytoin is elevated (20). The altered pharmacokinetics of phenytoin and other drugs may result in levels considered to be subtherapeutic. As part of a clinical trial evaluating the use of valproic acid for prophylaxis of posttraumatic seizures, the time-dependent effects of TBI on the pharmacokinetics of total and unbound valproic acid were evaluated (21). In the trial, 158 adult TBI cases (mean age, 36 yrs; mean GCS, 10; range, 3–15) were treated with a loading dose of valproic acid (20 mg/kg) followed by a maintenance dose. TBI resulted in an average 75% increase in drug clearance by 2 and 3 wks of recovery, which was associated with increased TBI severity, lower albumin concentration, tube feeding, and the presence of ethanol on admission. In general, there are limited data (22) on the effect of early age, genetic factors, and other drug interactions affecting pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants after TBI and the contribution of these factors to neurologic outcomes.

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Mechanisms of epileptogenesis relevant to pediatric TBI.

Studies of the mechanisms of posttraumatic epilepsy traditionally were limited by the lack of animal models; however, recent studies have begun to focus on PTS in developing animals after experimental TBI (2325). A number of mechanisms of posttraumatic epilepsy have been investigated; many focused on pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus including axonal sprouting, impaired K+ buffering by glia, saturation of synaptic long-term potentiation of Schaffer collaterals, hilar neuron loss, and activation of hippocampal TrkB-ERK1/2-CREB/ELK-1 pathways (23, 26). Recent studies have suggested a role for albumin-induced changes in the electrophysiological properties of astrocytes mediated by the transforming growth factor-β receptor and leading to accumulation of extracellular potassium (27, 28).

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VII. SUMMARY

The incidence of early PTS in pediatric patients with TBI is approximately 10% given the limitations of the available data. Based on a single class III study (4), prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy with phenytoin may be considered to reduce the incidence of early posttraumatic seizures in pediatric patients with severe TBI. Concomitant monitoring of drug levels is appropriate given the potential alterations in drug metabolism described in the context of TBI. Stronger class II evidence is available supporting the use of prophylactic anticonvulsant treatment to reduce the risk of early PTS in adults. There are no compelling data in the pediatric TBI literature to show that such treatment reduces the long-term risk of PTS or improves long-term neurologic outcome.

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VIII. KEY ISSUES FOR FUTURE INVESTIGATION

* Investigation of the frequency of early PTS in the setting of contemporary management and their association with acute pathophysiology and long-term neurologic sequelae.

* Investigation of the efficacy, safety, and drug levels required for the prevention of early posttraumatic seizures.

* Investigation of the efficacy and safety of new anticonvulsants for the treatment of early and late posttraumatic seizures.

* Identification of neuroimaging, electroencephalography, or serum biomarkers, which serve to predict patients at increased risk for late posttraumatic seizures.

* Elucidation of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis after TBI and identification of new therapeutic targets based on understanding these mechanisms.

* Improvement in the classification of early and late seizures, including the use of electroencephalography, to detect and classify posttraumatic seizures.

* Evaluation of the effect of TBI on changes in dosage requirements for anticonvulsant drugs and the contribution of age and genetically determined differences in hepatic and renal drug metabolism to the efficacy of anticonvulsants in the treatment of posttraumatic seizures.

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REFERENCES

1. Yablon SA: Posttraumatic seizures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74:983–1001

2. Holmes GL: Effects of seizures on brain development: Lessons from the laboratory. Pediatr Neurol 2005; 33:1–11

3. Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar J, et al.: Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. XIII. Antiseizure prophylaxis. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24(Suppl 1):S83–S86

4. Lewis RJ, Yee L, Inkelis SH, et al.: Clinical predictors of post-traumatic seizures in children with head trauma. Ann Emerg Med 1993; 22:1114–1118

5. Chang BS, Lowenstein DH, Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology: Practice parameter: Antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2003; 60:10–16

6. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Wilensky AJ, et al.: A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med 1990; 323:497–502

7. Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Anderson GD, et al.: Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: A randomized trial. J Neurosurg 1999; 91:593–600

8. Englander J, Bushnik T, Duong TT, et al.: Analyzing risk factors for late posttraumatic seizures: A prospective, multicenter investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 84:365–373

9. Formisano R, Barba C, Buzzi MG, et al.: The impact of prophylactic treatment on post-traumatic epilepsy after severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2007; 21:499–504

10. Ates O, Ondul S, Onal C, et al.: Post-traumatic early epilepsy in pediatric age group with emphasis on influential factors. Childs Nerv Syst 2006; 22:279–284

11. Medvdovsky M, Ifergane G, Wirguin I, et al.: Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients with seizures: descriptive characteristics. Epilepsy Behav 2006; 8:429–433

12. Appleton RE, Demellweek C: Post-traumatic epilepsy in children requiring inpatient rehabilitation following head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 72:669–672

13. Kieslich M, Jacobi G: Incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic epilepsy in childhood. Lancet 1995; 345:187

14. Young B, Rapp RP, Norton JA, et al.: Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent post-traumatic seizures in children. Childs Brain 1983; 10:185–192

15. Tilford JM, Simpson PM, Yeh TS, et al.: Variation in therapy and outcome for pediatric head trauma patients. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:1056–1061

16. Young KD, Okada PJ, Sokolove PE, et al.: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of phenytoin for the prevention of early posttraumatic seizures in children with moderate to severe blunt head injury. Ann Emerg Med 2004; 43:435–446

17. Kieslich M, Marquardt G, Galow G, et al.: Neurological and mental outcome after severe head injury in childhood: A long-term follow-up of 318 children. Disabil Rehabil 2001; 23:665–669

18. Gavranovic M, Konjhodzic F, Zubcevic S, et al.: Posttraumatic seizures—Prevention or not. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2005; 5:58–60

19. Boucher BA, Hanes SD: Pharmacokinetic alterations after severe head injury. Clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet 1998; 35:209–221

20. Griebel ML, Kearns GL, Fiser DH, et al.: Phenytoin protein binding in pediatric patients with acute traumatic injury. Crit Care Med 1990; 18:385–391

21. Anderson GD, Temkin NR, Awan AB, et al.: Effect of time, injury, age and ethanol on interpatient variability in valproic acid pharmacokinetics after traumatic brain injury.[ erratum appears in Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:447. Note: Winn, Richard H corrected to Winn, H Richard]. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007; 46:307–318

22. Frend V, Chetty M: Dosing and therapeutic monitoring of phenytoin in young adults after neurotrauma: Are current practices relevant? Clin Neuropharmacol 2007; 30:362–369

23. Kharatishvili I, Pitkanen A: Posttraumatic epilepsy. Curr Opin Neurol 2010; 23:183–188

24. Liesemer K, Bratton SL, Zebrack CM, et al.: Early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: rates, risk factors, and clinical features. J Neurotrauma 2011; 28:755–762

25. Pitkanen A, McIntosh TK: Animal models of post-traumatic epilepsy. J Neurotrauma 2006; 23:241–261

26. Garga N, Lowenstein DH : Posttraumatic epilepsy: A major problem in desperate need of major advances. Epilepsy Curr 2006; 6:1–5

27. Ivens S, Kaufer D, Flores LP, et al.: TGF-beta receptor-mediated albumin uptake into astrocytes is involved in neocortical epileptogenesis. Brain 2007; 130:535–547

28. van Vliet EA, da Costa Araujo S, Redeker S, et al.: Blood–brain barrier leakage may lead to progression of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 2007; 130:521–534

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APPENDIX B Literature Search Strategies
APPENDIX A Publicati...
APPENDIX A Publicati...
Image Tools
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Indications for Intracerebral Pressure Monitoring

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain Injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. intracranial pressure.mp. or Exp Intracranial Pressure/

6. intracranial hypertension.mp. or exp Intracranial Hypertension/

7. 5 or 6

8. 4 and 7

9. Limit 8 to “all Child (0 to 18 Yrs)”

10. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

11. 10 and 9

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Intracerebral Pressure Thresholds

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. intracranial pressure.mp. or exp Intracranial Pressure/

6. intracranial hypertension.mp. or exp Intracranial Hypertension/

7. 5 or 6

8. 4 and 7

9. limit 8 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

10. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

11. 10 and 9

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Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Thresholds

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. cerebral perfusion pressure.mp.

6. cerebrovascular circulation/and blood pressure/

7. 5 or 6

8. 4 and 7

9. Limit 8 to “all child (0 to 18 Yrs)”

10. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

11. 10 and 9

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Advanced Neuromonitoring

Database: Ovid Medline <1950 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. Exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. ((head or brain$ or cereb$ or cerebell$) adj3 (wound$ or traum$ or injur$ or damag$)).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. 1 or 2

4. exp Monitoring, Physiologic/

5. exp Intensive Care Units/or Exp Intensive Care/

6. 4 and 3 and 5

7. exp Oxygen/bl, an [Blood, Analysis]

8. licox.mp.

9. pbto2.mp.

10. ((oxygen$ or o2 or hypoxi$) adj3 (concentrat$ or level$ or monitor$ or pressur$)).mp.

11. exp Oximetry/

12. 8 or 11 or 7 or 10 or 9

13. ((transcrani$ adj3 (doppler or ultrasono$)) or tcd).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

14. ((near infrared adj3 spectrosc$) or nirs).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

15. exp Phosphopyruvate Hydratase/

16. exp Nervous System/

17. exp Nervous System Diseases/

18. 17 or 16

19. 18 and 15

20. neuron specific enolase$.mp.

21. nse.mp.

22. 21 or 20 or 19

23. exp S100 Proteins/

24. (s100b or S100 β).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

25. 24 or 23

26. exp Myelin Basic Proteins/

27. (Myelin basic protein$ or mbp).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

28. 26 or 27

29. glutamat$.mp.

30. xenon.mp. or exp Xenon/

31. ((brain$ or cereb$ or cerebell$) adj5 ((interstitial$ or extracellul$) adj3 (fluid$ or space$))).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

32. exp Extracellular Space/or exp Extracellular Fluid/

33. exp Brain/

34. 32 and 33

35. 34 or 31

36. microdialysis.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

37. exp Biological Markers/

38. (biomarker$ or biological marker$).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

39. 37 or 38

40. 3 and 5

41. 40 and 12

42. 13 and 40

43. 14 and 40

44. 22 and 40

45. 25 and 40

46. 28 and 40

47. 29 and 40

48. 30 and 40

49. 35 and 40

50. 36 and 40

51. 39 and 40

52. 50 or 51 or 41 or 48 or 47 or 42 or 49 or 46 or 45 or 43 or 44

53. 52 or 6 (333)

54. limit 53 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

55. limit 54 to English language

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Neuroimaging

Database: Ovid Medline <1950 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. ((head or brain$ or cereb$ or cerebell$) adj3 (wound$ or traum$ or injur$ or damag$)).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. 1 or 2

4. exp Tomography, X-Ray Computed/

5. exp Magnetic Resonance Imaging/

6. ((t2 or t1 or diffusion or susceptibility) adj weight$ adj3 imag$).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7. exp Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/

8. (magnetic$ adj resonan$ adj2 spectroscop$).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

9. 8 or 7

10. apparent diffusion coefficient$.mp.

11. exp Tomography, Emission-Computed/

12. (positron$ adj emission$ adj2 spectroscop$).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

13. (positron$ adj emission$ adj3 tomogra$).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

14. pet scan$.mp.

15. 11 or 13 or 12 or 14

16. 6 or 4 or 10 or 9 or 15 or 5

17. 3 and 16

18. Limit 17 to (English Language and Humans)

19. Limit 18 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

20. exp Intensive Care Units/or exp Intensive Care/

21. ((intensiv$ or critical$) adj2 (care or cared or caring or treat$ or therap$)).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

22. (icu or ccu).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

23. 22 or 21 or 20

24. 23 and 19

25. exp Emergency Treatment/

26. exp Emergency Service, Hospital/

27. 25 or 26

28. 27 and 19

29. 28 or 24

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Hyperosmolar Therapy

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. hyperosmolar therapy.mp.

6. hyperosmolar treatment.mp.

7. fluid therapy.mp. or exp Fluid Therapy/

8. Saline Solution, Hypertonic/

9. Osmolar Concentration/

10. 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9

11. 4 and 10

12. limit 11 to (English language and humans)

13. limit 12 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

14. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

15. 13 and 14

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Temperature Control

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. Hypothermia, Induced/

6. 4 and 5

7. limit 6 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

8. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

9. 8 and 7

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Line Search

1. Exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. ((brain$ or cereb$ or cerebell$ or head) adj3 (traum$ or damag$ or injur$ or wound$)).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word, unique identifier]

3. 1 or 2

4. exp Fever/

5. Fever$.mp.

6. 4 or 5

7. 3 and 6

8. limit 7 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

9. limit 8 to English language

10. hypertherm$.mp.

11. 1 and 10

12. limit 11 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

13. limit 12 to English language

14. 9 or 13

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Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. lumbar drain$.mp.

6. lumbar shunt$.mp.

7. exp Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts/

8. *Drainage/

9. 5 or 6 or 7 or 8

10. 4 and 9

11. limit 10 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

12. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

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Decompressive Craniotomy

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. intracranial hypertension.mp. or Exp Intracranial Hypertension/

6. 4 and 5

7. limit 6 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

8. limit 7 to English language

9. su.fs.

10. drain$.mp.

11. cerebrospinal fluid shunts.mp. or exp Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts/

12. neurosurgery.mp. Or Neurosurgery/

13. shunt$.mp.

14. 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13

15. 8 and 14

16. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

17. 16 and 15

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Hyperventilation

Database: Ovid Medline <1950 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. exp ISCHEMIA/

3. exp Jugular Veins/

4. exp Regional Blood Flow/

5. exp PERFUSION/

6. Exp HYPERVENTILATION/

7. 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6

8. 1 and 7

9. limit 8 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

10. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

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Corticosteroids

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. exp Steroids/or steroids.mp.

6. synthetic glucocorticoids.mp.

7. 5 or 6

8. 4 and 7

9. limit 8 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

10. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

11. 10 and 9

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Analgesics, Sedatives, and Neuromuscular Blockade

Database: Ovid Medline <1950 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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1. exp Analgesics/

2. exp “Hypnotics and Sedatives”/

3. propofol.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. exp phenothiazines/

5. exp central nervous system depressants/

6. 1 or 2 or 4 or 5

7. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

8. 6 and 7

9. Limit 8 to (English language and humans)

10. limit 9 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

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Glucose and Nutrition

Database: Ovid Medline <1950 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. ((head or brain$ or cereb$ or cerebell$) adj3 (wound$ or traum$ or injur$ or damag$)).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. 1 or 2

4. exp Glucose/

5. exp hyperglycemia/or exp hypoglycemia/

6. exp Insulin/

7. exp diet/

8. exp Nutrition Therapy/

9. exp nutritional status/

10. exp nutritional requirements/

11. exp Enteral Nutrition/

12. exp Intubation, Gastrointestinal/

13. exp Feeding Methods/

14. exp Gastrostomy/

15. exp Energy Metabolism/

16. Exp Energy Intake/

17. harris-benedict equation.mp.

18. exp Nutritional Requirements/

19. intralipid.mp. or exp Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/

20. (metaboli$ adj3 (cart or carts)).mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

21. 4 and 3

22. 3 and 5

23. 6 and 3

24. 3 and 7

25. 3 and 8

26. 3 and 9

27. 3 and 10

28. 3 and 11

29. 12 and 3

30. 3 and 13

31. 3 and 14

32. 15 and 3

33. 3 and 16

34. 3 and 17

35. 3 and 18

36. 3 and 19

37. 3 and 20

38. 24 or 25 or 26 or 27 or 35 or 33 or 36 or 29 or 34 or 21 or 28 or 30 or 22 or 32 or 23 or 31 or 37

39. limit 38 to English language

40. limit 39 to humans

41. limit 40 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

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Antiseizure Prophylaxis

Database: Ovid Medline <1996 to 2010>

Search Strategy

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Line Search

1. exp Craniocerebral Trauma/

2. head injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3. brain injur$.mp. [mp = title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4. 1 or 2 or 3

5. exp Seizures/or Seizures.mp.

6. exp Epilepsy/

7. exp convulsions/or convulsions.mp.

8. 5 or 6 or 7

9. 4 and 8

10. limit 9 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

11. exp seizures/dt, pc or exp epilepsy/dt, pc or convulsions/dt, pc

12. 4 and 11

13. limit 12 to “all child (0 to 18 yrs)”

14. exp Clinical Trials as Topic/

15. Exp Practice Guidelines as Topic/or practice guidelines.mp.

16. 14 or 15

17. 10 and 16

18. 13 or 17

19. (2001$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$ or 2008$ or 2009$).ed.

20. 18 and 19

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APPENDIX D Mixed Patient Samples
APPENDIX C Literatur...
APPENDIX C Literatur...
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Criteria for including a study in which the sample includes patients with TBI and patients with other pathologies, or pediatric and adult patients

If:

* the sample for a study includes patients with TBI as well as patients with other pathologies, pediatric as well as adult patients, or mild/moderate as well as patients with severe TBI,

* and the data are not reported separately,

* and there is an effect of the study,

* then it cannot be known if the effect existed for the TBI group or if it was large in the non-TBI group and small in the TBI group. Similarly, it cannot be known if the effect existed for the pediatric group or if it was large in the adult group and small in the pediatric group. Therefore, we cannot know with confidence that the intervention had an effect for TBI in pediatric patients.

We have established the following criteria to minimize the uncertainty when including publications with mixed samples:

1. Sample size must be ≥25 patients.

2. ≥85% of the patients must have severe TBI.

3. ≥85% of the patients must be ≤18 yrs of age.

4. Such a study could never be used to support a level I recommendation.

5. Such a study can only support a level II or III recommendation. It cannot be used to support a level II recommendation if it is the only class II study available.

6. If a publication mixes the results of pediatric patients with those of adults, and the mean and standard deviation for age are provided, the mean and standard deviation can be used to calculate the proportion of pediatric patients, and if the proportion is ≥85%, the study can be used as evidence.

7. If the study does not report the percent of patients with TBI, it cannot be used as evidence at any level.

APPENDIX E Evidence ...
APPENDIX E Evidence ...
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©2012The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies

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