Objectives: The relationship of cerebral saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with serum biomarker of brain injury S100B was investigated in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Single-center children’s hospital.
Patients: Forty infants between 1 and 12 months old weighing greater than or equal to 4 kg with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled.
Measurements and Main Results: Serum S100B was measured at eight time points over 72 hours using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Physiologic data including arterial, cerebral, and somatic regional oxygen saturations measured by near-infrared spectroscopy were synchronously recorded at 1-minute intervals from anesthesia induction through 72 postoperative hours. The arterial-cerebral oxygen saturation difference was calculated as the difference between arterial saturation and cerebral regional saturation. Thirty-eight patients, 5.4 ± 2.5 months old, were included in the analysis; two were excluded due to the use of postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Seventeen patients (44.7%) had preoperative cyanosis. S100B increased during cardiopulmonary bypass in all patients, from a median preoperative baseline of mean ± SE: 0.055 ± 0.038 to a peak of 0.610 ± 0.038 ng/mL, p less than 0.0001. Patients without preoperative cyanosis had a higher S100B peak at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the absolute cerebral regional saturation on cardiopulmonary bypass was not associated with S100B elevation, patients who had arterial-cerebral oxygen saturation difference greater than 50 at any time during cardiopulmonary bypass had a higher S100B peak (mean ± SE: 1.053 ± 0.080 vs 0.504 ± 0.039 ng/mL; p < 0.0001).
Conclusions: A wide cerebral arteriovenous difference measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with increased serum S100B in the perioperative period and may be a modifiable risk factor for neurological injury.