Objective: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation appears to improve survival in patients with acute refractory cardiopulmonary failure. This analysis was performed to determine survival outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality for term and preterm neonates who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Design: Retrospective review of data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization international registry.
Setting: Pediatric and neonatal ICUs.
Patients: Infants less than or equal to 30 days.
Interventions: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Measurements and Main Results: Demographic, clinical, and survival data from patients who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation between 1998 and 2010 were analyzed to determine factors that affect in-hospital mortality. Overall survival to hospital discharge for the 641 neonates who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 39%. In univariate analysis, gestational age correlated inversely with stroke (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.75–0.95]; p = 0.006) and death (odds ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78–0.96]; p = 0.005) as did corrected gestational age (odds ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81–0.97]; p = 0.006) and birth weight (odds ratio, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.38–0.74]; p < 0.001). Dysrhythmia as the primary diagnosis had significantly lower odds of death than single-ventricle cardiac disease (odds ratio, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.06–0.95]; p = 0.04). Higher pre-extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation oxygenation decreased the odds of death (odds ratio, 0.996 [95% CI, 0.994–0.999]; p = 0.01), whereas complications occurring on extracorporeal life support increased the odds of death. In the multivariate analysis, lower birth weight and pre-extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation oxygenation, as well as complications including CNS hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, acidosis, renal replacement therapy, and mechanical complications, increased the odds of death.
Conclusions: Overall survival for neonates receiving extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is similar to older pediatric patients but decreases with lower gestational age and weight. Despite this, many low–birth weight neonates survive to hospital discharge.