Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a commonly used form of mechanical circulatory support in children with congenital or acquired heart disease and cardiac failure refractory to conventional medical therapies. In children with heart disease who suffer cardiac arrest, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been successfully used to provide cardiopulmonary support when conventional resuscitation has failed to establish return of spontaneous circulation. Survival to hospital discharge for children with heart disease support is approximately 40% but varies widely based on age, indication for support, and underlying cardiac disease. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is lifesaving in many instances, it is associated with many complications and is expensive. Thus, a clear understanding of survival to discharge and long-term functional and neurologic outcomes are essential to guide the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation now and in the future. This review, part of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society/Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Joint Statement on Mechanical Circulatory Support, summarizes current knowledge on short- and long-term outcomes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation used to support children with cardiac disease.
1Cardiac Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust and Institute for Cardiovascular Science University College London, London, United Kingdom.
2Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
3Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Divisions of Cardiology and Critical Care Medicine at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and Heart Institute, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Cincinnati, OH.
4Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Department of Cardiology, Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Dr. Ichord has disclosed that she is a consultant/member of the Clinical Event Committee for Berlin Heart, The Woodlands, TX. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
For information regarding this article, E-mail: Katherine.Brown@gosh.nhs.uk