Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a commonly used form of mechanical circulatory support in children with congenital or acquired heart disease and cardiac failure refractory to conventional medical therapies. In children with heart disease who suffer cardiac arrest, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been successfully used to provide cardiopulmonary support when conventional resuscitation has failed to establish return of spontaneous circulation. Survival to hospital discharge for children with heart disease support is approximately 40% but varies widely based on age, indication for support, and underlying cardiac disease. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is lifesaving in many instances, it is associated with many complications and is expensive. Thus, a clear understanding of survival to discharge and long-term functional and neurologic outcomes are essential to guide the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation now and in the future. This review, part of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society/Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Joint Statement on Mechanical Circulatory Support, summarizes current knowledge on short- and long-term outcomes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation used to support children with cardiac disease.