Objective: To describe the adaptive behavior and functional outcomes, and health-related quality of life of children who were urgently admitted to the ICU.
Design: Prospective observational study.
Setting: Critical Care Medicine program at a University-affiliated pediatric institution.
Patients: Urgently admitted patients, aged 1 month to 18 yrs.
Measurements and Main Results: We evaluated children’s adaptive behavior functioning with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2, functional outcomes with the pediatric cerebral performance category and pediatric overall performance category, and health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 and Visual Analogue Scale. We enrolled 91 children and 65 (71%) completed the 1-month assessment. Patients had a mean (SD) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2 rating of 83.2 (±24.8), considered to be moderate-low adaptive behavior functioning. From baseline to 1 month, pediatric cerebral performance category ratings did not significantly change (p = 0.59) and pediatric overall performance category ratings significantly improved (p = 0.03). Visual Analogue Scale ratings significantly worsened from baseline to 1wk (p < 0.0001) and significantly improved from 1 wk to 1 month (p=0.002). At 1 month, patients had a mean (SD) Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4 rating of 52.8 (±27.9) of 100, a poor quality of life rating. Circulatory admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, worse transcutaneous oxygen saturation, and longer cardiac compression duration were independently associated with worse adaptive behavior functioning. Neurological admissions, worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer ICU stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse functional outcome. Worse pediatric cerebral performance category score at baseline, longer ICU stay, and longer duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were independently associated with worse health-related quality of life.
Conclusions: Children surviving PICU have significant adaptive behavior functioning and functional morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life. Although neurologic morbidity following ICU was associated with baseline state, we found that resuscitation intensity and illness severity factors were independently associated with the development of acquired brain injury and reduced quality of life.