Objective: To determine the reliability and safety of the apneic oxygenation test to diagnose brain death for the purpose of organ donation.
Date Sources: Published scientific literature in Medline database, organ donation guidelines and neurophysiological principles described in medical textbooks.
Study Selection: Articles on brain death, apnea testing, and radionuclide scintigraphy.
Data Extraction and Synthesis: Hypercarbia with a target Paco2 of 60 mm Hg (8.0 kPa) must be reached before apnea is deemed consistent with brain death in some clinical guidelines, whereas a level of 50 mm Hg (6.7 kPa) is required in another. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the test are doubtful because some patients have commenced spontaneous respiration >60 mm Hg (8.0 kPa) and high levels of Paco2 may cause CO2 narcosis. Furthermore, the test may be harmful if the brain stem is responsive because hypercarbia may also cause intracranial hypertension and contribute to brain damage. Although guidelines for organ donation recommend the test as an essential component of brain death diagnosis, it is often not performed or performed inadequately. Wide variation in conduct of the test has prompted calls for standardization.
Conclusions: The apneic oxygenation test is unreliable in the diagnosis of brain death. It is scientifically flawed and hypothesized to cause brain death. In lieu of this test, a reliable test of brain perfusion should be mandatory, whereas the apneic oxygenation test, if performed at all, should be restricted to demonstration of apnea after brain perfusion has been shown to be absent.