ABSTRACT: Fifty-seven of 98 children with cholesteatoma treated between 1976 and 1985 were available for long-term follow-up. The clinical records of the 57 children were analyzed retrospectively. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of recurrent and/or residual cholesteatoma, postoperative otorrhea, and hearing results between two groups of patients. One group (n = 40) of children was treated with a radical mastoidoepitympanectomy (RMET) and the other group (n = 17) was treated with intact canal wall tympanoplasty/mastoidectomy (ICWT). Residual cholesteatomas were twice as frequent (17% versus 7.5%) in the ICWT group while recurrent disease was the same. There was no difference in postoperative otorrhea between the two patient groups. Hearing results were equally good in the Type III and in the ICWT group with staged TORP. It is concluded that a Type III tympanoplasty is an excellent one-stage method of hearing reconstruction in patients with good eustachian tube function and an intact stapes and that a correctly performed RMET offers a safe trouble free alternative to ICWT. In selected patients with limited disease and a well pneumatized mastoid, ICWT is still used.