Osteoporosis causes approximately 1.5 million fractures every year in the United States. Not only can these fractures be painful and disfiguring but they may reduce a person's ability to lead an active life as well. Osteoporosis affects every bone in the body, but the most common places where fractures occur are the back, hips, and wrists. Because osteoporosis thins bones, weakening them and making them more susceptible to fractures, practitioners must understand the risk factors and the diagnosis and management of this very common problem. This article, geared toward advanced practice nurses, presents a summary of the latest diagnostic tests and medication treatments available and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of osteoporosis.