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Optometry & Vision Science:
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000088
OVS Announces

OVS Announces

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IN THIS ISSUE:

Blinking, Conjunctival Folds, and Dry Eye: A Connection?
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The authors measured dry eye symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and nasal and graded temporal lid parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF). Their study suggests that the frequency and completeness of blinking (i.e., whether incomplete, almost complete, or complete) are important in understanding dry eye symptoms. The “almost complete” blinking relative frequency, observed by video from an inferior-temporal view, was significantly related to LIPCOF severity and dry eye symptoms. (P. 1034)

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Editor’s Choice open access

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Corneal Refractive Surgery Dry Eye and Corneal Sensation Compared
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Although corneal refractive surgery using either small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) or Femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (F-LASIK) both reduce corneal sensation for at least 3 months, measured dry eye indices remained unchanged from the preoperative condition during the postoperative period. This was the finding of our authors who conducted a prospective randomized contralateral-eye study for both procedures (one on each eye) on 28 myopic patients. (P. 1040)

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Recovering Tear Breakup Time After LASIK
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Both femtosecond laser and microkeratome-assisted LASIK induce dry eye syndrome and decrease corneal sensitivity. However, our authors found that, after LASIK, only tear breakup time (TBUT) recovered faster in femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK surgery than surgery with a mechanical microkeratome. (P. 1048)

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Oily Tears and Silicone Hydrogel Lenses Increase Lipid Deposits on CLs
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The authors exposed various contact lens (CL) materials to a complex artificial tear solution containing typical tear film proteins, salts, and lipids. They measured the amount of lipid deposition on the CL materials for up to 28 days and found that cholesterol uptake was greater on silicone hydrogel materials. Although this was an in vitro experiment with surrogate tears and tear film exchanges, patients with an oilier tear film and longer wear times can be expected to show more lipid on their lenses. (P. 1057)

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Predicting Visual Performance with Multifocal Contact Lenses Using Power Profiles
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Many contact lens (CL) manufacturers produce simultaneous-image lenses in which power varies either smoothly or discontinuously with zonal radius, creating both the distance correction and the reading addition. The authors measure power profiles of multifocal CLs from four manufacturers and suggest that, combined with knowledge of the wearer’s ocular aberrations and likely pupil diameter, the power profiles can be valuable guides to the expected patient visual performance. (P. 1066)

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Are Bitangential and High Oxygen-Permeable Scleral Contact Lenses Effective?
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A new scleral lens design with a bitangential (nonrotationally symmetrical) periphery, using a high oxygen–permeable material, appeared to be useful when applied to a group of 144 patients (213 eyes) with a variety of ocular disorders (57% keratoconus; 15% ocular surface diseases; 14% penetrating keratoplasty; and other forms of irregular astigmatism, 13%). During the 1-year period of the study, more than 95% of the lenses provided good fitting characteristics of lens movement and lens positioning, and about 80% of wearers gave high comfort ratings. (P. 1078)

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Poor Correlation of Noninvasive Tear Breakup Time with Ocular Surface Disease Index
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The authors indicated that questionnaires suffer from the drawback of being poorly validated and have largely not been applied to well-defined populations. They note that frequently these instruments are validated against themselves, creating artificially elevated sensitivity and specificity values, absent a true “gold standard” test. Notwithstanding these problems, the authors were able to observe, in a study of 100 successive patients presenting for refractive services, at least a weak negative correlation between noninvasive tear breakup time and Ocular Surface Disease Index with the Keratograph 4. (P. 1086)

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Surgical Monovision Finds Patient Support
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Monovision refractive surgery leaves one eye emmetropic for distance vision and the other eye myopic for near vision. Although some refractive surgeons have abandoned this technique in favor of bilateral full-distance correction, the authors’ preference for treating presbyopic myopic patients with monovision correction surgery was supported by their patient satisfaction survey on 40 monovision surgery patients. (P. 1092)

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Comparing Healthy and Glaucomatous Corneal Curvature
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In a prospective, cross-sectional, observer-masked study, 138 white subjects (one eye per patient) were recruited to measure corneal curvatures (Orbscan); 69 eyes had POAG (study group), and the other 69 were healthy control eyes matched for age and central corneal pachymetry. Our authors found that patients with glaucoma have a higher posterior corneal elevation than controls, suggesting that mechanical compression of the corneal stroma has occurred in these eyes. (P. 1098)

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A Novel Measure of Retinal Oxygen
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The authors have developed a novel image analysis approach for a retinal oximeter to provide a more complete picture of retinal oxygen saturation at the posterior pole. By modeling the bimodal distribution of oxygen saturation from 17 participants, their analysis identifies changes in oxygen saturation as a function of vessel width and retinal location. They feel that this approach may be a more objective way to analyze retinal oximetry data. (P. 1104)

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Predicting Visual Acuity with Corrected Aberrations of the Eye
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Individual patient differences in pupil size, accommodative response, and wavefront aberrations often make modeling, using traditional optics, a poor match to clinical measures of visual acuity. However, the authors argue that correcting individual variations in biometry, along with using a metric with a high predictive and intuitive correlation with through-focus clinical measures, allows designers to test numerous designs before the clinical testing. (P. 1111)

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Moving Objects Help Make Sense of Static Unrecognizable Objects
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In natural vision, both static and moving images are important. When visual acuity is poor, moving images can become important (e.g., in low vision) and make the otherwise imperceptible static images meaningful. Our authors create blurred images in normally sighted participants in their study and demonstrate the surprisingly powerful effect of moving images despite blur making the static image unrecognizable. An accompanying video clip helps readers appreciate this. They suggest that, in low vision, both sources of information are probably also very important. (P. 1119)

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Screening Preschoolers’ Refractive Error
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Intertester agreement of refractive error measurements is important, especially when performed by trained lay screeners or nurse screeners. Our authors compared refractive error measured by two instruments (Retinomax Autorefractor [Retinomax] and SureSight Vision Screener [SureSight]) as part of a relatively large study of almost 1500 preschoolers (aged 3 to 5 years). Trained lay and nurse screeners agree well in measuring refractive error, although significant refractive error and a reading with low confidence number were associated with worse intertester agreement. (P. 1128)

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Understanding Eye Care–Seeking Behavior Is Critical
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Our authors argue that many of the causes of childhood blindness are preventable and curable if there is detection. Here, they focus on the role of family dynamics and socioeconomic and logistic factors in eye care seeking in India. From their study, involving in-depth interviews and focus groups with parents and eye care professionals, they identify factors that hinder or could facilitate eye care-seeking behavior in Chennai, India. (P. 1138)

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Quantifying Age Changes in Glare at Night
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Disability glare from headlights of oncoming cars reduces quality of vision. Our authors developed a test that they applied in realistic simulated spaces using glare levels relevant to night traffic situations. Perhaps not surprisingly, like earlier studies, they showed an increase of disability glare with age. They found that their glare device (Rostock Glare Perimeter) measures are sensitive to age-related differences in disability glare and can demonstrate binocular summation for disability glare even in a healthy population. (P. 1143)

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Chronic Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Predict Acute Symptoms
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Two convergence insufficiency symptom surveys were administered to 40 participants to assess chronic visual discomfort symptoms. Two measures were also used to assess acute symptoms, and confirmed chronic symptoms were able to predict the acute symptoms. About 75% of predictions were accurate; headache, soreness, and eye-related questions were the most reliable predictors of acute symptom outcome. (P. 1149)

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Photopsia? Bring New Clinical Tools
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Although multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is rarely encountered, this case presentation points to the importance of considering MEWDS and other white dot syndromes as a potential diagnosis when patients present with complaints of photopsias. This case reminds us that proper diagnosis is not only vital, but can now be aided with new tools, such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescenct imaging. (P. e263)

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More New Clinical Tools for Diagnosis of Optic Nerve Head Drusen
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Our authors illustrate nicely that new imaging techniques allow greater diagnostic ability. They illustrate this with a case of a 15-year-old girl with optic disc drusen where B-scan is complemented with RGB separation imaging, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral domain OCT. They emphasize that the addition of the new tests is relatively fast, painless, and safe and may allow avoidance of invasive testing normally used to rule out serious conditions like papilledema. (P. e269)

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Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection Successfully Treats X-Linked Retinoschisis
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Our authors describe a case where posterior subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide successfully treated pseudophakic cystoid macular edema and foveoschisis in a patient with X-linked retinoschisis (XLR). It provided stable and much improved vision during the 1-year follow-up. The authors believe, from their literature search, that this is the first case of macular cyst disappearance after periocular corticosteroid administration in a patient with XLR. (P. e274)

Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Optometry

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