This month, “Clinical Communications,” under the clinical editorship of Editorial Board member Larry Alexander, OD, FAAO, includes color image content and optional supplementary digital content, with no cost to our authors.
Each article in this section is followed by a clinical comment by our clinical editor, emphasizing the clinical take-home message. We provide these “Clinical Pearls” of the publication following the article’s title, authors, and abstract. The full text and illustrations are found online with the colored images and any video clips.
Dr. Larry Alexander provides all of the clinical comments (“Clinical Pearls”) on each article in “Clinical Communications.” This is all part of our OVS program to enrich the clinical content of OVS and make it very accessible, in color and motion, to clinicians, readers, and authors alike.
Tony Adams, OD, PhD, FAAO
Editor in Chief
Coinfection with Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas in Contact Lens–Associated Keratitis
Reetika Sharma, Vishal Jhanji, Gita Satpathy, Namrata Sharma, Sudarshan Khokhar, and Tushar Agarwal
Purpose. To report coinfection with Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a case with contact lens–associated keratitis.
Case Report. A 20-year-oldwoman presented to the emergency department of our hospitalwith a 4-day history of progressively increasing pain, redness, photophobia,mucopurulent discharge, and diminution of vision in her right eye. She was being treated for contact lens–related Pseudomonas keratitis in another hospital before presentation. Gram stain of corneal scrapings revealed gram-negative bacilli. Both Gram stain and 10% KOH wet mount showed the presence of Acanthamoeba cysts. Microbiological cultures obtained from contact lenses and contact lens storage case showed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acanthamoeba. Topical therapy was started in the form of hourly gentamycin 1.3%, cefazolin 5%, chlorhexidine 0.02%, propamidine 0.1%, polymyxin B 30,000 IU eye drops, and neosporin (neomycin, bacitracin, polymyxin) eye ointment four times a day. Symptomatic improvement was observed within 48 hours, along with a decrease in the density of infiltrates and a reduction in the anterior chamber reaction. Repeat corneal scrapings on day 10 showed Acanthamoeba but no bacilli. Progressive resolution of the infiltrate was noted during the next fewdays. Epithelialization was complete by day 24, following which the amoebicidal therapy was tapered during the next 4 weeks. Complete resolution of keratitis was achieved after 7 weeks of treatment.
Conclusions. Both P. aeruginosa and Acanthamoeba are potentially devastating causes of microbial keratitis. Our case highlights the importance of considering the possibility of a concurrent infection in cases with contact lens–related keratitis.
The Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Lymphoma
Purpose. Lymphoma is the most common malignancy of the ocular adnexa. Most of the ocular adnexa lymphomas are non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. The most common type of ocular adnexa lymphoma is primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue). Most of these neoplasms are primary extranodal lymphomas, although 10% to 32% are secondary tumors from disseminated disease.
Case Report. A 58-year-old woman presented for a comprehensive examination, with the chief complaint of ocular discomfort in both eyes. Anterior segment examination revealed bilateral salmon-colored lesions of the inferior and superior conjunctivae. The patient was referred for systemic evaluation and histopathology of the conjunctival lesions. She was diagnosed as having marginal zone lymphoma of the MALT and underwent radiation therapy (RT).
Conclusions. Ocular lymphoma may present on routine examination or with mild symptoms. Although most commonly a primary extranodal neoplasm, the condition may be associated with disseminated lymphoma and requires thorough evaluation and staging of the disease for determination of appropriate treatment. The primary eye care provider plays an important role in the identification and staging of the disease, as well as managing complications from RT. It is also important to recognize that concurrent conditions requiring treatment with topical medications, such as glaucoma, may be complicated after treatment because of the inflammation and ocular surface irritation after RT. The necessity and benefit of the addition of intraocular pressure medications during that time should be measured on a case-by-case basis. Patients should be followed closely after treatment for relapse of disease and identification of complications from ocular RT.
Fabry Disease: A Review of Ophthalmic and Systemic Manifestations
Melanie D. Sivley
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by accumulation of Gb-3 (globotriaosylceramide) in cellular lysosomes of tissues throughout the body. With advancing age, lysosomal Gb-3 accumulates in blood vessel walls, nerve cells, smooth muscle, and vital organs. Premature death commonly results from renal failure, heart attack, and stroke when the diagnosis is delayed or overlooked. One of the earliest and most distinctive physical features of FD is a whorl-like keratopathy. This finding is easily identifiable during a routine eye examination with a slit lamp, making eye care practitioners uniquely postured to identify patients and families with this incurable genetic disorder. Much of the pain, suffering, and adverse impact of FD can be avoided if an alert eye care expert sees the patient at an early age, identifies the condition, and makes the appropriate referral. The importance of obtaining athorough medical history, ancestral health history, and review of systems to correlate ocular and systemic manifestations is emphasized. This report reviews the multisystem involvement of FD and describes the clinical characteristics and expected chronological appearance of ophthalmic and systemic manifestations. The discoveries of late-onset variants, increased prevalence, and modified inheritance pattern of FD are discussed. The profound therapeutic effects of recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on multiple organ systems are detailed and demonstrated in a Fabry proband. Improved quality and quantity of life after initiation of ERT underscore the importance of early recognition and correlation of FD symptoms and clinical signs. Treatment strategies and the effectiveness of new adjunctive chaperone therapy are addressed.