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Optometry & Vision Science:
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e3182652fe7
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OVS Announces

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IN THIS ISSUE:

Bugs Sticking to Silicone Hydrogel Lenses

Bacterial adhesion to contact lenses is likely to be an initiating factor for the production of a number of adverse events during contact lens wear. Our authors looked at the ability of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to adhere to 10 different silicone hydrogel lenses; they also studied the effect of wear on the adhesion. Just like water lilies keep their leaves above water and clean using surface hydrophobicity, the authors demonstrated that silicone hydrogel lenses with high surface hydrophobicity adhered less bacteria. Strains of P. aeruginosa adhered in higher numbers than S. aureus. Lens wear had minimal affect on adhesion. (p. 1095)

Multifocal Contact Lens Optical Performance Compared

In their newly developed physical model eye, capable of carrying soft contact lenses, our authors evaluate the optical performance of several commercial multifocal contact lenses and compare the performance to single vision contact lenses. They conclude that their method maybe useful to evaluate the relative effectiveness of commercial and prototype designs of multifocal contact lenses. (p. 1107)

Flying Tear-Film Particles Assess Spread and Stability

A novel approach to assessing tear-film stability and spread is offered by our authors. They note that tear-film particle velocity during contact lens wear was different in the morning compared with following 8 hours lens wear. The method offers promise for candidate biocompatible “comfort enhancing agents” with contact lenses. (p. 1119)

Dryness Symptoms of Soft Contact Lens Wearers Most Often Have No Clinical Signs

Our authors looked at the demographics, wearing patterns and symptoms of soft contact lens (SCL) wearers with significant SCL-related dryness symptoms, with and without significant ocular signs of dryness. Many (25%) of the wearers with significant dryness symptoms had no visible clinical signs of dryness, suggesting that such wearers without signs may be early presentations of other diagnoses and clinicians need to be alert to this. (p. 1125)

Tracking Adverse Events and Discontinuation of Orthokeratology in Children

Orthokeratology contact lenses are being fitted in children to arrest myopia progression, but there have been few studies of the incidence of adverse effects over an extended time. Here, the authors follow the incidences of adverse effects and discontinuations of orthokeratology contact lenses, compared with single vision spectacles in the same age children group (age, 6–12 years), over two years period. There were <30% of the orthokeratology wearers experiencing adverse events (half of those events deemed not significant), whereas there were none for SV spectacles. Perhaps, not surprisingly, discontinuation of either modality was low (though greater in the SV spectacle group) and suggests that orthokeratology is acceptable for children. (p. 1133)

Delivery of an Anti-Allergy Drug by Contact Lens Materials

Our authors investigated the potential of several commercially available contact lenses to uptake and release the anti-allergy drug ketotifen fumarate in vitro. Several of the investigated lens types were able to deliver therapeutically relevant amounts of the drug over several hours, highlighting the potential of contact lenses to act as a drug reservoir in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. (p. 1140)

Mydriatics Not a Problem for Choroidal Thickness Measures

The proposed possible impact of a mydriatic on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography measures of choroidal thickness has implications clinically. Fortunately, the authors found no statistically significant differences for choroidal thickness measures with or without mydriatics. (p. 1150)

Mesopic Pupil Size of Refractive Surgery Candidates is Poorly Predicted by Clinical Measures

In a very large study of patients (14,000) who had been refractive surgery candidates, the authors were interested in the mesopic pupil size and its relationship to age, gender, refractive state, average keratometry, and pachymetry (thinnest point) using multivariate regression analyses. The average mesopic pupil size was almost 6.5 mm, and it correlated best with age and refractive error. Keratometry and pachymetry were not significantly correlated with pupil size. More important, even combining all these factors results in a very poor prediction of mesopic pupil size. (p. 1156)

Statins and Diabetes Increase Provide Alert to Clinicians for Age-Related Cataract

In a large optometric clinic population, age-related cataract was associated with type 2 diabetes and statin use. Considering the increase in the prevalence of diabetes and the corresponding increase in the use of statins, the authors feel these findings serve to encourage further research on the long-term affect of statins on the human crystalline lens. (p. 1165)

Test-Retest Reliability of a Clinical Contrast Sensitivity Test

Visual acuity is only one indicator of visual performance and describes a patient's best spatial resolution, typically for black on white optotypes. Contrast sensitivity provides additional information and appears to correlate well with performing many daily living tasks. Our authors take one contrast sensitivity test (CSV-1000) and report that the reliability of the test is low when used with healthy young children and adults. (p. 1172)

Perimetry and Microperimetry Can be Reconciled

Perimetry has long been a part of clinical vision examinations; however, in patients with eccentric viewing and/or unsteady fixation, the uncertainty about the exact position of the retina during testing reduces its clinical utility. Newer instruments enhance positional accuracy by tracking fixation. Although there are similarities between the new microperimeters and clinical perimeters, there are important differences in stimulus configuration. The authors found good correspondence among the results of these instruments only when the data were converted to equivalent increment threshold units. Importantly, the discrepancies they observed emphasized the consequences of design choices made by the manufacturers on psychophysical results. (p. 1182)

Optic Neuropathies Detected by a Rapid Vision Test

The authors reveal that a relatively new, rapid (<2 minutes), rarebit (bright dots on a black background) vision test, designed for screening macular disorders is also capable of detecting optic neuropathies. They show this by studying 22 patients with optic nerve lesions of light to moderate severities and compare their results with results of high-pass resolution perimetry and a threshold letter acuity test. (p. 1192)

Tis the Season for Myopia Slowing

The authors collected myopia progression data from children wearing spectacles in “summer,” “autumn,” “winter,” or “spring.” Their main finding revealed a mean increase in spherical equivalent myopia and axial length in summer that was significantly less than in winter. Strangely, despite equivalent myopia progression in the autumn and spring, in the autumn, about 60% of the increase in myopia could be explained by axial length increase, but for only 8% for the spring. This raises the question of whether the axial length increase and refractive error change always occur contemporaneously. (p. 1196)

A Focus on “Read Without Glasses Method”

The “Read Without Glasses Method” is a home-based training program designed to “eliminate the need for bifocals” in presbyopes with 6 minutes of daily home exercises. This online program uses chiastopic fusion training activities to stimulate accommodative “reserves.” Our authors' study investigated changes in uncorrected near visual acuity and accommodative response in eight presbyopes following the use of the program. None of the subjects showed a clinically measurable change in acuity or accommodation, but many reported subjective improvement of near vision and decreased use of reading glasses. (p. 1203)

Spherical Aberration From Myopic Excimer Laser Ablation

The authors compare the induction of spherical aberration using aspheric and non-aspheric laser ablation profile by MEL80 excimer laser. Three months after surgery, there was less induction of spherical aberration in myopic LASIK with an aspheric ablation profile than with a non-aspheric ablation profile. The authors also demonstrated the relationship between pupil diameter and spherical aberration, which become more significant after myopic LASIK. (p. 1211)

Age-Adjusted Cone Adaptation a Biomarker for AMD

The authors provide compelling evidence for age-related slowing of cone dark adaptation in healthy adults and suggest that the diagnostic potential of this biomarker for AMD could be improved by comparing an individual's results with age-adjusted norms. (p. 1219)

Clinical Attention to Corneal Thickness

Our authors find that in a population of young adults with myopia, African-Americans had slightly higher measured IOP and thinner central corneas than other ethnic groups. These findings have implications for clinical care. Given the risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma (African descent, central corneal thickness, myopia, IOP), their results argue for the evaluation of IOP and central corneal thickness during routine examination of African-Americans beginning at a young age to consider when evaluating a patient for refractive surgery. (p. 1225)

Peripheral Refractive Error: Can it Really Predict Onset of Myopia?

Many have cited a 1971 paper on pilot refractive error as one of the earliest and widely cited papers supporting the idea that peripheral retinal refraction is somehow predictive of the onset of myopia. Our authors raise serious doubts that the paper actually supports this, believing the paper does not provide this evidence. (p. 1235)

© 2012 American Academy of Optometry

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