IN THIS ISSUE:
• Optical Treatment Strategies for Myopia
In his 2010 Prentice Medal Award article, Earl Smith explains how refractive error development, regulated by visual feedback and previously assumed to be driven by foveal signals, can clearly be regulated by peripheral retina refractive status. He notes that the overall pattern of research results suggests that optical treatment strategies for myopia that take into account the effects of peripheral vision are likely to be more successful than strategies that effectively manipulate only central vision. (p. 1029)
• Myopic Parents of Myopic Children: Education Level More Than Occupation?
The parents of myopic children participating in a clinical trial of lenses to slow the progression of myopia had a high prevalence of myopia that was associated with their level of education and to a lesser extent with their choice of occupation. The authors note that this may be the first account of refractive errors, education, and occupation in the parents of a large group of myopic children. (p. 1045)
• Astigmatism in the Middle East
Prevalence and characteristics of astigmatism in a random sample of schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran, a Middle Eastern population, reveal that against-the-rule astigmatism was high. Moreover, the decrease in the prevalence of with-the-rule and the increase in the prevalence of against-the-rule astigmatism with aging occur earlier compared with other studies. Against-the-rule astigmatism was high in those with low ametropia. (p. 1054)
• The Gradual Decrease in Fusional Vergence of Myopic Children
After 10 years in a longitudinal study, throughout their school years, the fusional vergence ranges of myopic children decrease at both distance and near and the near phoria becomes more exophoric. This decrease in compensating convergence ranges raises clinical issues given the near phoria becomes more divergent. (p. 1060)
• Stereothresholds and Random-Dot Stereogram Density
The differences in stereothresholds for random dot images with low and high density are consistent with a distinction between local and global disparity processing. However, though the stereothresholds are limited by different constraints suggesting that low- and high-density random dot images may be different types of stereo targets, the authors suggest a single disparity-processing mechanism. (p. 1066)
• A Novel Approach Shows Sensory Dominance May be Precortical
The authors describe a new method for assessing sensory eye dominance in normal eyes under conditions of binocular fusion. They show that sensory dominance is affected by alterations in mean luminance between the eyes; a finding that could suggest its site is precortical. (p. 1072)
• Where Best to Reveal Abnormal Dark Adaptation in ARM?
Dark adaptation is abnormal in people with age-related maculopathy (ARM), but the optimal location for detection of this deficit has not been clear. The authors' research shows that while the largest deficit was at the fovea, between-subject variation at this location reduced its diagnostic potential. Instead, using an annular stimulus 12° from fixation was best at discriminating healthy controls from those with ARM. (p. 1080)
• How do Peripheral Ocular Aberrations Change With Age?
Our authors compared peripheral lower and higher order aberrations across the horizontal (±40°) and inferior visual field in a group of young and older emmetropes. Like the axial higher order aberrations, the peripheral higher order aberrations of emmetropes increase with age, particularly coma and spherical aberration. (p. 1088)
• How Repeatable are Aberration Measures With a Ray Tracing Aberrometer?
The authors found that the ray tracing based iTrace aberrometer provides repeatable measurements of near and distance spherocylindrical refraction, but the consistency of the measurement of higher order aberrations with this instrument seems to be more limited. (p. 1099)
• Tear Film Evaluation Tests Used by Spanish Practitioners
A simple on-line survey of Spanish optometrists and ophthalmologists revealed their preferred tests for tear film evaluation and dry eye diagnosis. The tear breakup time test was the first choice for optometrists and ophthalmologists, but their data show that continuing education was positively related to the use of more sophisticated tear film evaluation tests. (p. 1106)
• How Good is Surgical Reconstruction of the Tear Meniscus?
Fifteen patients who had surgical reconstruction of the tear meniscus for conjunctivochalasis underwent evaluation with a symptom questionnaire, Schirmer I test, fluorescein tear film breakup time (FBUT), and breakup time index (BUI) preoperatively and 3 months after the surgery. The surgery improved tear stability (mean FBUT and BUI values) and reduced clinical dry eye symptoms. The Schirmer test after surgery was not different than before. (p. 1112)
• Spherical Lens Correction for Astronauts Training Underwater
In preflight training underwater to simulate weightless conditions in space, NASA astronauts must look through an altered spectacle lens correction because their spacesuit helmet's curved visors induce refractive power in water. The authors' model, which can be applied generally for underwater masks, defines the spectacle lens correction needed underwater. (p. 1119)
• Lenticular Neovascularization: An Unusual Clinical Entity
Neovascularization of the crystalline lens is rarely reported. Our author presents a series of four patients with a history of antecedent ocular trauma who presented with discrete neovascularization within a hypermature, cataractous lens. In this first known case series of its type, the author offers photographic evidence and insight into a possible developmental mechanism for lenticular neovascularization. (p. 1127)
• Got Hemes? Look in the Family Tree!
Subconjunctival hemorrhages are frequent. Less well known is the fact that may be an ophthalmic sign that can uncover a condition, hereditary hemochromatosis, that may affect multiple generations of people. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a common yet widely unknown genetic disorder that can lead to skin changes, diabetes, arthralgia, and hepatic carcinoma. The authors' Case Report illustrates early detection by optometrists can lead to physical examination and hematologic studies and genetic testing critical for quality of life. (p. 1133)
• Reducing the “Sunken Eye” Side Effect of Prostaglandin Therapies With Glaucoma
Prostaglandin F2α analogs are widely used to treat glaucoma and ocular hypertension because they offer more intraocular pressure reduction and fewer systemic side effects than beta blockers. A deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus can be a complication of prostaglandin F2α analogs. An OVS report in 2004 was the first to report this side effect in three patients on unilateral bimatoprost therapy. Eyes with this side effect caused by travoprost or bimatoprost may tolerate latanoprost therapy. (p. 1140)