Vergence Facility with Stereoscopic and Nonstereoscopic Targets

Momeni-Moghaddam, Hamed*; Goss, David A.; Dehvari, Abubakr

Optometry & Vision Science:
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000227
Original Articles

Purpose: To compare vergence facility with nonstereo and stereo targets in binocular symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects.

Methods: Sixty-six students were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Questionnaire score. Vergence facility was tested at 40 cm by flipper prism 3Δ BI/12Δ BO (BI, base-in; BO, base-out). The targets used were a nonstereo target (a vertical column of small letter “E” of ~20/30 size), a stereo-local target (fifth set of circles of the Titmus test with stereoacuity of 100 arcsec), and a stereo-global target (page 6 of the TNO test with stereoacuity of 120 arcsec).

Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed differences in the mean vergence facility with different targets in all subjects and separately in two symptom groups (p < 0.001). In all subjects and separately in the symptomatic subjects, this difference was statistically significant among the three different targets (p < 0.05). In the asymptomatic subjects, this difference was not significant between the measured values with nonstereo and stereo-local targets (p > 0.05) but significant for the comparison of stereo-global targets with the other two targets. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the cutoff points 10.5, 10.5, and 9.75 cycles per minute with nonstereo, stereo-local, and stereo-global targets, respectively. The sensitivity of the three targets used was the same (97%). Specificity was 0.93 or higher with all three targets, with the highest specificity obtained with the stereo-global target (100%).

Conclusions: The highest vergence facility was obtained with a nonstereo target and the lowest was obtained with a stereo-global target. High sensitivity with all three targets means that there are few false-negative results with them, and the high specificity is indicative of low false-positive results. Hence, the vergence facility predictive value would be high in diagnosing binocular symptomatic patients using a 3Δ BI/12Δ BO prism flipper at near and a response cutoff of about 10 cycles per minute or less.

Author Information




Health Promotion Research Center (HM-M) and School of Optometry (AD), Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran; and School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (DAG).

Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam Razmju Moghaddam Central Laboratory Kafami Street, Zahedan, Sistanobaluchestan Iran e-mail:

© 2014 American Academy of Optometry