Optometry & Vision Science

Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 2012 - Volume 89 - Issue 11 > Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Biochemical M...
Optometry & Vision Science:
doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e31826c5df2

Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Biochemical Mechanisms and Patient Support

Willeford, Kevin T.*; Rapp, Jerry

Collapse Box


Abstract: A small percentage of the population associates smoking with ocular disease. Most optometrists do not stress the importance of smoking cessation to their patients, and the centrality of smoking regarding the risk for ocular disease is not emphasized in optometric education. Age-related macular degeneration has strong epidemiological associations with smoking, and so serves as an appropriate model for the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the eye. This article aims to provide basic scientific information to optometrists and optometry students so that they can better understand the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration and provide education and support to their patients wishing to stop smoking.

© 2012 American Academy of Optometry


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.