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Dependence of Reading Speed on Letter Spacing in Central Vision Loss

Chung, Susana T. L.*,†,‡

doi: 10.1097/OPX.0b013e318264c9dd
Original Articles

Purpose. Crowding, the difficulty in recognizing a letter in close proximity with other letters, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in people with central vision loss. The goals of this study were (1) to examine whether increased letter spacing in words, which presumably reduces crowding among letters, would benefit reading for people with central vision loss and (2) to relate our finding to the current account of faulty feature integration of crowding.

Methods. Fourteen observers with central vision loss read aloud single sentences, one word at a time, using rapid serial visual presentation. Reading speeds were calculated based on the rapid serial visual presentation exposure durations yielding 80% accuracy. Letters were rendered in Courier, a fixed-width font. Observers were tested at 1.4× the critical print size (CPS), three were also tested at 0.8× CPS. Reading speed was measured for five center-to-center letter spacings (range: 0.5–2× the standard spacing). The preferred retinal locus for fixation was determined for nine of the observers, from which we calculated the horizontal dimension of the integration field for crowding.

Results. All observers showed increased reading speed with letter spacing for small spacings, until an optimal spacing, beyond which reading speed either showed a plateau, or dropped as letter spacing further increased. The optimal spacing averaged 0.95 ± 0.06× [±95% confidence interval] the standard spacing for 1.4× CPS (similar for 0.8× CPS), which was not different from the standard. When converted to angular size, the measured values of the optimal letter spacing for reading show a good relationship with the calculated horizontal dimension of the integration field.

Conclusions. Increased letter spacing beyond the standard size, which presumably reduces crowding among letters in text, does not improve reading speed for people with central vision loss. The optimal letter spacing for reading can be predicted based on the preferred retinal locus.




School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Received February 1, 2012; accepted March 26, 2012.

Susana T. L. Chung School of Optometry University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-2020 e-mail:

© 2012 American Academy of Optometry