On July 26–29, 2010 the 13th International Myopia Conference was held in Tübingen, Germany and included 17 separate symposia, each with 3–5 presentations. Here, in a single paper, the chairs of those Symposia describe the scientific advances noted at the conference and include the full abstracts of the individual myopia papers presented in each symposium along with the authors and their institutions. The 17 Symposia covered 7 topics: Why Study the Mechanisms of Myopia?; Novel Approaches to Risk Factors; Signaling Eye Growth- How Could Basic Biology Be Translated into Clinical Insights?; Where Are Genetic and Proteomic Approaches Leading?; How Does Visual Function Contribute to and Interact with Ametropia?; Does Eye Shape Matter?; Why Ametropia at All?