Twenty years of investigation into emmetropization and the development of myopia has led to several recent insights. Accommodation appears to be an important visual signal for emmetropization. Lens thinning during emmetropization and its cessation at the onset of myopia suggest that interruption of lens stretch during growth is an important part of the process of developing myopia. The ciliary muscle may play a greater role in emmetropization and myopia than previously thought. Time spent outdoors, not near work, may be the more important environmental variable in myopia. The effect of time outdoors shows an important interaction with a substantial genetic contribution to the risk of myopia.