Children may perform poorly on a test of visual-motor integration due to deficits in one or more of the following: visual analysis/visual spatial ability, motor coordination, visual conceptualization, or visual-motor integration. The VMI Supplemental Developmental Test of Visual Perception (VP) and VMI Supplemental Developmental Test of Motor Coordination (MC) were developed to help differentiate between such difficulties after administration of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI). However, the clinical value of the VMI supplemental tests has not been reported.
The VMI, VP, and MC were administered to 193 children (mean age = 8.77 years).
Multiple linear regression revealed that the supplemental tests were significantly related to the VMI (VP: β = 0.212 ± 0.044, p < 0.001; MC: β = 0.422 ± 0.299, p < 0.001) but explained only 36.2% of the variance in the VMI. Poor performance was defined as a score >1 SD below the mean for study population norms and below the 16th percentile for published norms. Using study population norms, 35 children did poorly on the VMI, 20% of whom scored poorly on VP, 14.3% of whom scored poorly on MC, 17.1% of whom scored poorly on both supplemental tests, and 48.6% of whom scored within normal on both supplemental tests. Using the published norms, 40 children scored poorly on the VMI. Twenty-eight children scored poorly on VP, 39% of whom scored within normal on the VMI. Fifty-six children scored poorly on MC, 54% of whom scored within normal on the VMI.
There was a significant amount of variance in performance on the VMI that was not explained by performance on the tests of VP or MC alone. Each area should be individually assessed during the visual perceptual examination of children, regardless of performance on the VMI. Even children who perform within normal limits on the VMI may show a deficit in VP or MC.
The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, Ohio
Received June 28, 2001;
revision received November 25, 2002.
Marjean Taylor Kulp, OD, MS, FAAO
The Ohio State University
College of Optometry
320 West 10th Ave.
P.O. Box 182342
Columbus, OH 43218-2342
Supported, in part, by Ohio Lion’s Eye Research Foundation grants to MTK.