(Abstracted from N Engl J Med 2016;375:1726–1737)
Antiretroviral regimens used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have evolved over the years. Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is currently used for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV but has shown more adverse effects compared with regimens containing fewer antiretroviral agents.
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (M.G.F.); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (T.E.T.), Baltimore; Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (D.G., K.L.K., R. Browning, L.P.); Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (G.K.S.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (M.Q., T.F., D.E.S.); The Retrovirology Core Laboratory, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (S.A.F., A.J.L.); FHI 360, Durham (A.S.C.), NC; UCLA Center for Clinical AIDS Research and Education, Los Angeles, CA (J.S.C.); St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (P.M.F.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe (T.C.); Anova Health Institute (J.M.), Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences (A.V.), and Empilweni Services and Research Unit (R.S.), Johannesburg; School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town (J.M.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Stellenbosch University (G.B.T.), Cape Town; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa–Umlazi Clinical Research Site (D.M.), Durban Paediatric HIV (R. Bobat), Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal (F.E.M.), Durban, South Africa; University of North Carolina Project, Kamuzu Central Hospital–Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, Malawi (F.E.M.); Makerere University–Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda (M.O.); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, B.J. Medical College, Pune, India (R. Bhosale); Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia (B.H.C.); Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center–Duke University Collaboration, Moshi, Tanzania (P.M.); Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation, Amherst, NY (M.B.); and Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Washington, DC (L.M.M.)
Topics: CD4, combination antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, tenofovir, zidovudine.