This article focuses on the role of interventional radiology in the therapeutic and diagnostic management of benign and malignant gynecologic conditions. The subspecialty of interventional radiology utilizes minimally invasive advanced image-guided percutaneous techniques in gynecology that include central venous catheter placement, fluid aspiration, drainage catheter placement, tissue biopsy, inferior vena cava filter placement, and pelvic arterial embolization. Central venous catheters, such as ports, peripherally inserted central catheters, and tunneled catheters, are placed for intermediate to long-term intravenous chemotherapy or total parental nutrition or antibiotics. Patients with refractory malignant ascites or pleural effusion from seeding of advanced gynecologic cancers may benefit by percutaneous aspiration of fluid collections or placement of drainage catheters. Postoperative fluid collections including abscess, seroma, or lymphocele are managed by percutaneous drainage catheter insertion. Pelvic, peritoneal, or retroperitoneal masses can be sampled by image-guided percutaneous biopsy or aspiration of fluid to determine a pathologic diagnosis. Certain patients are at risk for deep venous thrombosis with pulmonary embolism and may benefit from an inferior vena cava filter. Patients with uncontrolled postoperative or postpartum bleeding can be effectively managed with emergent transarterial pelvic embolization. Each of the aforementioned interventions with indications, expected benefits, and complications is described including a published literature.
Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians, interventional radiologists
Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to identify the role of each type of interventional procedure in the management of patients with benign and malignant gynecologic conditions and to discuss the techniques, relevant imaging modalities, indications, contraindications, and potential complications of interventional radiology.