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Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey:
CME Program: CME Review Article

Ritualistic Female Genital Mutilation: Current Status and Future Outlook

Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, Barbara; Gillis, Rebecca; Brzezinski, Amnon

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Abstract

Ritualistic sexual mutilation of females dates back to the fifth century B.C. This traditional practice is a social as well as a health issue that affects the physical and mental well being of the women who undergo it. Although practiced mostly in African countries north of the equator and the Middle-East, concern has recently been expressed that female genital mutilation is also being practiced in the U.S., Europe, and other western countries by immigrants from these countries. This review describes the various types of female genital mutilation and presents the historical and cultural background of the tradition, outlines the medical, psychological and sexual problems, and discusses the current status and future outlook for this tradition, emphasizing social, medical, and legislative aspects.

© Williams & Wilkins 1997. All Rights Reserved.

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