The prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in the United States is concerning. The etiologies of these chronic diseases are multifactorial in nature, involving varying genetic, social, and environmental factors. The relationship between food and food ingredients and risk for chronic disease has been particularly questioned. Specifically, scientific investigators have extensively examined the relationship between sugars and health. Consensus to date includes the following: total sugar intake does not cause type 2 diabetes; evidence linking sugar consumption to obesity is inconsistent; and intake of carbohydrates, including sugars, is not considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although more research is needed in some areas, in general, the available data show no direct link between moderate consumption of sugars and serious diseases or obesity.