As discussed in part I of this series, the fiber in whole grains makes important contributions to health, yet the fiber content of whole grains and products containing them varies widely. Moreover, fiber remains a nutrient of concern for Americans. Given the ongoing fiber deficit, consumer research was conducted to assess consumer understanding of fiber as it relates to whole-grain foods and the actual fiber content of foods that make whole-grain claims. The results reveal that consumers equate whole-grain label statements with claims about fiber content and choose products containing whole grains with the expectation of increasing their fiber intake. Marketplace research found that many food products with whole-grain label statements contain less than a “good source” of fiber (labeled as <3 g per serving). A multifaceted approach is warranted to reduce confusion and help increase Americans’ fiber intake, including better regulation of whole-grain label claims and emphasis on consumer education to promote greater fiber intakes from whole-grain choices.