Nursing Research. 55(6):402-410, November/December 2006.
In this randomized controlled intervention study, a 3-group (TFS, TFS-B, and UC) by 3-occasion (baseline, 8 weeks postrandomization, and 1-year following study entry) design was used. The study included 142 pregnant adolescents who were aged 14 to 19 years. Both self-reported smoking status collected on the Smoking History Questionnaire and saliva cotinine levels were used to identify smoking behaviors.