Background: The number of nurse scientists pursuing cross-cultural research using quantitative designs is increasing. Preparation of instruments that are conceptually and functionally appropriate in the language of the participants is a complex process that needs examination.
Objectives: Brislin’s classic model for translation and validation of instruments for cross-cultural research is critiqued. Adaptations and extensions of that model are recommended.
Methods: Brislin’s model guided tool preparation in a cross-cultural investigation. The process is described and lessons learned are outlined and discussed.
Conclusions: Steps toward a more efficient and valid approach to the preparation of instruments are suggested.
Patricia S. Jones, RN, PhD, FAAN, is Professor at the Loma Linda University School of Nursing, California.
Jerry W. Lee, RN, PhD, is Professor at the Loma Linda University School of Public Health, California.
Linda R. Phillips, PhD, RN, is Professor at the University of Arizona College of Nursing, Tucson, Arizona.
Xinwei E. Zhang, MS, EdS, is Research Assistant at the Loma Linda University School of Nursing, California.
Karen B. Jaceldo, MS, EdS, is a Doctoral Candidate and Research Assistant at the Loma Linda University School of Public Health, California.
Accepted for publication September 28, 2000.
This study was funded by NINR (R29, #NR03056).
Address reprint requests to Patricia S. Jones, RN, PhD, FAAN, Loma Linda University School of Nursing, 11262 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (e-mail: email@example.com).