Background: Despite the proliferation of health technologies, descriptions of the unique considerations and practical guidance for evaluating the intervention fidelity of technology-based behavioral interventions are lacking.
Objectives: The aims of this study were to (a) discuss how technology-based behavioral interventions challenge conventions about how intervention fidelity is conceptualized and evaluated, (b) propose an intervention fidelity framework that may be more appropriate for technology-based behavioral interventions, and (c) present a plan for operationalizing each concept in the framework using the intervention fidelity monitoring plan for Pocket PATH (Personal Assistant for Tracking Health), a mobile health technology designed to promote self-care behaviors after lung transplantation, as an exemplar.
Method: The literature related to intervention fidelity and technology acceptance was used to identify the issues that are unique to the fidelity of technology-based behavioral interventions and thus important to include in a proposed intervention fidelity framework. An intervention fidelity monitoring plan for technology-based behavioral interventions was developed as an example.
Results: The intervention fidelity monitoring plan was deemed feasible and practical to implement and showed utility in operationalizing the concepts such as assessing interventionists' delivery and participants' acceptance of the technology-based behavioral intervention.
Discussion: The framework has the potential to guide the development of implementation fidelity monitoring tools for other technology-based behavioral interventions. Further application and testing of this framework will allow for a better understanding of the role that technology acceptance plays in the adoption and enactment of the behaviors that technology-based behavioral interventions are intended to promote.