Background: Although many studies have been focused on interventions designed to promote mammography screening among ethnic minority women, few summaries of the effectiveness of the interventions are available.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the interventions for improving mammography screening among asymptomatic ethnic minority women.
Methods: A meta-analysis was performed on intervention studies designed to promote mammography use in samples of ethnic minority women. Random-effects estimates were calculated for interventions by measuring differences in intervention and control group screening rates postintervention.
Results: The overall mean weighted effect size for the 23 studies was 0.078 (Z = 4.414, p < .001), indicating that the interventions were effective in improving mammography use among ethnic minority women. For mammography intervention types, access-enhancing strategies had the biggest mean weighted effect size of 0.155 (Z = 4.488, p < .001), followed by 0.099 (Z = 6.552, p < .001) for individually directed approaches such as individual counseling or education. Tailored, theory-based interventions resulted in a bigger effect size compared with nontailored interventions (effect sizes = 0.101 vs. 0.076, respectively; p < .05 for all models). Of cultural strategies, ethnically matched intervention deliveries and offering culturally matched intervention materials had effect sizes of 0.067 (Z = 2.516, p = .012) and 0.051 (Z = 2.365, p = .018), respectively.
Discussion: Uniform improvement in mammography screening is a goal to address breast cancer disparities in ethnic minority communities in this country. The results of this meta-analysis suggest a need for increased use of a theory-based, tailored approach with enhancement of access.