Background: Poor sleep is a frequent complaint of persons with HIV infection.
Objectives: To pilot test a tailored sleep promotion intervention protocol based on principles of sleep hygiene in a convenience sample of 30 HIV seropositive women.
Methods: At baseline and 1 week after implementing the intervention, sleep was assessed by self-report measures and wrist actigraphy. Objective sleep measures include total sleep time, number of awakenings, and sleep efficiency, as well as level of daytime activity, 24-hr activity rhythm, and amount of sleep during the day.
Results: Prior to the intervention, women averaged 6.4 hr (SD = 1.99) of sleep, and 67% (n = 20) of the sample napped more than 30 min per day. After allowing 1 week to implement sleep hygiene principles to promote healthy sleep behaviors, there was a significant improvement in their perception of sleep and a significant change in their 24-hr activity rhythm. This involved more activity and less napping during the day.
Discussion: Although there was minimal change in objective measures of nighttime sleep for the group as a whole, those with initiation insomnia and maintenance insomnia benefited most from the intervention. These findings support the utility of a tailored sleep promotion intervention for women who are HIV positive to address their unique form of sleep disturbance.
Angela L. Hudson, PhD, FNP-C, is Assistant Professor, Los Angeles School of Nursing, University of California.
Carmen J. Portillo, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Professor, Department of Community Health Systems; and Kathryn A. Lee, PhD, RN, FAAN, is Professor, Department of Family Health Care Nursing, San Francisco School of Nursing, University of California.
Accepted for publication April 7, 2008.
This research was supported by the National Institute of Nursing Research Grant R01 NR03969.
Thank you to Helen Miramontes, Lili Tom, and Mary Ellen Zaffke.
Corresponding author: Kathryn A. Lee, PhD, RN, FAAN, Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California, 2 Koret Way, #N-411 San Francisco, CA 94143-0606 (e-mail: email@example.com).