Background: Development of a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise appropriate for older adults will help establish the relationship between outcome expectations and exercise. Once established, this measure can be used to facilitate the development of interventions to strengthen outcome expectations and improve adherence to regular exercise in older adults.
Objectives: Building on initial psychometrics of the Outcome Expectation for Exercise (OEE) Scale, the purpose of the current study was to use structural equation modeling to provide additional support for the reliability and validity of this measure.
Methods: The OEE scale is a 9-item measure specifically focusing on the perceived consequences of exercise for older adults. The OEE scale was given to 191 residents in a continuing care retirement community. The mean age of the participants was 85 ± 6.1 and the majority were female (76%), White (99%), and unmarried (76%). Using structural equation modeling, reliability was based on R 2 values, and validity was based on a confirmatory factor analysis and path coefficients.
Results: There was continued evidence for reliability of the OEE based on R 2 values ranging from .42 to .77, and validity with path coefficients ranging from .69 to .87, and evidence of model fit (X 2 of 69, df = 27, p < .05, NFI = .98, RMSEA = .07).
Conclusion: The evidence of reliability and validity of this measure has important implications for clinical work and research. The OEE scale can be used to identify older adults who have low outcome expectations for exercise, and interventions can then be implemented to strengthen these expectations and thereby improve exercise behavior.
Barbara Resnick, PhD, CRNP, is Associate Professor, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore.
Sheryl Zimmerman, PhD, is Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, School of Social Work.
Denise Orwig, PhD, is Assistant Professor, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore.
Anne-Linda Furstenberg, PhD, is Associate Professor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, School of Social Work.
Jay Magaziner, PhD, MSHyg, is Professor, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore.
Accepted for publication December 1, 2000.
This work was in part supported by the National Institutes of Health NIA Grant RO1 AG17082-01, Principal Investigator Barbara Resnick, PhD,CRNP., and the National Institutes of Health NIA Grant R37 AG09901, Principal Investigator Jay Magaziner, PhD, MSHyg.
Address reprint requests to Barbara Resnick, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Room 375, 655 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org).