INSTRUCTIONS The evidence that isn't...Interpreting research
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The evidence that isn't...Interpreting research
GENERAL PURPOSE: To provide the professional registered nurse with a review of levels of evidence in research and its applicability to healthcare. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, the nurse manager will be able to: 1. Identify trends that make evidence-based practice essential. 2. Discuss the purpose and strength of various types of evidence.
1. The author believes that most current healthcare practices are based on
b. consensus opinions.
c. systematic reviews.
d. quasi-experimental research.
2. Translating science into practice has practically eradicated
a. pneumonia post myocardial infarction.
b. pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients.
c. myocardial infarction during ambulation programs.
d. certain diets for obesity patients.
3. The author feels the major driver for a paradigm shift from tradition to evidence is
4. An important characteristic of an accountable care organization is that it
a. maintains financial accounts in the black.
b. integrates care along the continuum of care.
c. focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness.
d. pays for patient care at the setting where it's provided.
5. The author predicts that electronic healthcare records will do all of the following except
a. eliminate the need for individual patient-focused care planning.
b. provide overwhelming data for tracking outcomes.
c. improve communication between providers across the care continuum.
d. require providers to follow established evidence-based protocols.
6. Public reporting of quality data
a. has increased the cost of care.
b. doesn't seem to influence consumer care choices.
c. is used by payers to penalize poor performers.
d. is used by consumers to make healthcare decisions.
7. When diagnosis-related outcomes were introduced, many hospitals cut costs by
a. cross-training staff.
b. cutting nonstaff expenses.
c. cutting a percentage of staff.
d. encouraging physicians to use evidence-based practices.
8. The Institute of Medicine's legacy report helped reveal that
a. cross-training puts undue stress on nurses.
b. most care was grounded in tradition.
c. cost-cutting measures were linked to decreased patient satisfaction and outcomes.
d. diagnosis-related groups were effective in bringing down costs.
9. Which statement about the scientific method is accurate?
a. It seeks to determine cause-and-effect relationships.
b. It's useful in legal investigations.
c. It's too formal to use in most patient care inquiries.
d. It provides evidence that isn't usually transferable to large populations.
10. The last step of the scientific method is
a. analyzing data.
b. evaluating data.
c. drawing a conclusion.
d. communicating results.
11. Which type of evidence is considered the least scientifically valid?
a. expert opinion
b. statistical evidence
c. anecdotal evidence
d. testimonial evidence
12. Which statement best reflects the author's perspective about statistical evidence?
a. Nurses need advanced education in order to analyze statistical data.
b. Nurses need to be astute about statistical analysis to interpret statistical data.
c. It's the most reliable evidence.
d. It's the most valid evidence.
13. Which of the following does the author describe as an educational tool?
a. case study
b. expert opinion
c. consensus opinion
d. systematic review
14. Which type of evidence uses a control group but not a randomized design?
a. consensus opinions
b. nonexperimental research
c. quasi-experimental research
d. standardized clinical control trial
15. The gold standard for evidence-based care is
a. the systematic review.
b. the consensus statement.
c. a study using experimental design.
d. the randomized clinical control trial.
16. To achieve effective science-based practice
a. nurses must fight against cost constraints that discourage research.
b. clinicians should focus on outcomes instead of patient preferences.
c. nurse leaders must develop expertise in performing scientific studies.
d. clinicians must ensure patient agreement with the evidence-based plan of care.